Q: Someone with a strong excuse doubted — 50% probability — that fasting was not obligatory for him, so he did not fast. Later it became clear to him that fasting was obligatory for him at that time. What is the ruling in respect of performing the qaḍā’ and paying kaffārah?
A: If one breaks a fast in the month of Ramadan, merely due to the possibility that fasting is not obligatory for him, then he must carry out its qaḍā’ and pay the kaffārah as well. However, if one did not fast out of rational fear that fasting would be harmful for him, then it is not necessary for him to pay kaffārah, but he must perform the qaḍā’.