Hajj Merits & SIGNIFICANCE
Hajj is one of the most integral pillars of Islam upon which Islam has been established. Imam Baqir (as) says "Islam has been established on the following five elements: prayer, zakāt, fast, hajj and wilāyah".
Hajj is of two kind; obligatory and mustaḥabb, it holds immense virtue and abundant reward. Many traditions have been narrated from the Holy Prophet S.A.W. and the purified Ahl ul-Bayt as. on the merits of hajj. Imam Sadiq (Peace be upon Him) says: "Those who performHajj and ‘umrah form the delegation of Allah; if they beg Him, He will grant them; if they call upon Him, He will answer them; if they want to intercede for others, He will accept it; and if they keep quiet, He will speak on their behalf, and they will be compensated with a reward of one million dirhams for the expense of one dirham".
 Al Kafi, vol. 2 p. 18, H. 1 ; Wasaeil Ashia, vol. 1 p. 7, chapter. 1 H. 1
 Al Kafi, vol. 4, p. 255, H. 14
CAN HAJJ BE ABANDONED?
Issue 1: In the light of many verses and hadiths, a person who has qualified for Hajj and is well aware that hajj is obligatory upon him and yet does not perform it has committed a major sin.
Allah Almighty in the Holy Qur'an says:
وَلِلّهِ عَلَي النَّاسِ حِجُّ الْبَيْتِ مَنِ اسْتَطَاعَ إِلَيْهِ سَبِيلاً وَمَن كَفَرَ فَإِنَّ الله غَنِي عَنِ الْعَالَمِينَ
"Pilgrimage to the House is a duty imposed upon mankind by God for everyone who can afford a way to it. Anyone who disbelieves will find that God is Transcendent beyond any need of the Universe".
It is narrated from Imam Sadiq (as):
"If a person dies and does not perform Hajj while there was no pressing need, severe illness or any cruel ruler which may prevent him from performing it, he will die as a Jew or a Christian".
Sura Alay Imran, verse. 97
 Tahzib Al Ahkam, vol. 5, p. 17
Types of Hajj and ‘umrah
Issue 2:The hajj is basically of two types: hajj on behalf and hajj for oneself. Hajj on behalf is the hajj performed on behalf of another person, whereas hajj for oneself is hajj accomplished for oneself. Hajj for oneself is further classified into two forms: obligatory hajj and recommended hajj.
Issue 3: The obligatory hajj becomes an obligation in itself according to the Islamic law, or it becomes obligatory because of nadhr or invalidation of previous hajj.
Issue 4: For every kind of hajj, that is,ḥajjat ul-Islam and hajj on behalf — there are rulings and conditions, which will be mentioned in the first part in two chapters.
Issue 5: Obligatory hajj is further classified into three forms: tamattu‘, ifrād and qirān.
Hajj tamattu‘ is obligatory for a person whose homeland is located at a distance more than 90 km from the holy city of Mecca.
Hajj ifrād and hajjqirān are obligatory for people who reside within the holy city of Mecca or those who are settled at a distance less than the aforementioned one.
Hajj tamattu‘ differs from hajj ifrād and hajjqirān with regard to rituals.
Issue 6: The basic feature that distinguishes hajjtamattu‘ from hajj ifrādand hajj qirān is ‘umrah.Hajj tamattu‘ comprises two parts: ‘umrah and hajj. It starts with ‘umrah. A gap exists between ‘umrah and hajj during which the pilgrim comes out of iḥrām state and is allowed to tamattu‘(literally enjoy) things which are prohibited for a muḥrim (a person who is in state of iḥrām). Both ‘umrah tamattu‘ and hajj tamattu‘ should be performed in the same year.
Hajj ifrād and qirān comprise only hajj rituals, and ‘umrah in these cases is considered an independent worship termed as ‘umrah mufradah. So, a person may perform ‘umrah mufradah in one year and hajj ifrād/qirān in another year.
Issue 7: ‘Umrah tamattu‘ and ‘umrah mufradah have common rites that would be mentioned in the second section and their differences will be mentioned in issue 16.
Issue 8: Similar to hajj, ‘umrah is sometimes obligatory and other times it is mustaḥabb.
Issue 9: In Islamic jurisprudential rulings, ‘umrah is obligatory once in life. If a person fulfills the required conditions of ‘umrah, he should perform it. Like hajj, it is obligatory for those who are mustaṭī‘ to perform ‘umrahas soon as possible. For those who reside in Mecca or its vicinity (not further than ninty km from Mecca), being mustaṭī‘ for hajj is separable from being mustaṭī‘ for ‘umrah. Therefore, if a person is mustaṭī‘only for one of them, he should perform it as soon as possible.
It is noteworthy to mention here that this rule is specific only for those who live in the holy city of Mecca or reside at a distance of less than ninty kilometers from the holy city of Mecca. With regard to the people living far from Mecca and their duty is to perform hajj tamattu‘, ability and qualification for hajj and ‘umrahis not separate from each other because hajjtamattu‘ includes ‘umrah of tamattu‘ and hajj and both of them should be performed in the same year.
Issue 10:It is not lawful for a person intending to perform hajj or ‘umrah to enter the Holy City of Mecca without iḥrām. And if he wants to enter in the Holy city of Mecca in days other than hajj season, it is obligatory for him to enter the Holy City with iḥrām of ‘umrah mufradah. However, the following two groups are exempted from this commandment:
1.Those who frequently visit the holy city of Mecca for job/occupational purposes.
2.Those who have exited the Holy city of Mecca after performing the rites and acts of hajj/‘umrah and want to re-enter the holy city of Mecca during the same [lunar] month.
Issue 11: The repetition of ‘umrah is recommended similar to repetition of hajj and there lies no particular gap limit between two ‘umrahs. But, on cautionary terms one can perform only one ‘umrah for himself within a month. If he performs two ‘umrahs on behalf of others or he performs one‘umrah for himself and the second for another person, this caution is not necessary. Therefore, if he performs the second ‘umrah on behalf of another person, it is permissible for him to receive the wages of performing ‘umrahand ‘umrah mufradah will be sufficient for the performer whether it is obligatory or not.
General Structure of hajj tamattu‘ and its ‘umrah
Issue 12: Hajj tamattu‘ includes two acts: ‘umrahtamattu‘ and hajj tamattu‘.‘Umrah tamattu‘ is prior to hajj tamattu‘ and both these acts have specific deeds which are discussed below.
Issue 13: The deeds of ‘umrah tamattu‘:
1.Wearing iḥrām (hajj dress) from a mīqāt;
2.Ṭawāf around the Holy Ka‘bah;
3.Prayer of ṭawāf ;
4.sa‘y (to walk) between the mountains of Safā and Marvah;
5.Taqsīr (cutting a small quantity of hair or nail)
Issue 14: The deeds of hajjtamattu‘ are mentioned below:
1.Iḥrām (wearing dress of hajj) in the holy city of Mecca;
2.Wuqūf(staying) in ‘Arafāt from the noon of the ninth of Dhul-Ḥijjah to sunset;
3.Wuqūf (staying) in Mash‘ar ul-Ḥarām on the night before the tenth of Dhul-Ḥijjah to sunrise;
4.Stoning at Jamarah ‘Aqabah on the day of Eid ul-Adha (the tenth of Dhul-Ḥijjah);
6.Shaving head or taqsīr (cutting a small quantity of hair or nail);
7.Ṭawāf around the Holy Ka‘bah;
8.Prayer of ṭawāf ;
9.sa‘y (to walk) between the mountains of Safā and Marvah;
10.Ṭawāf of nisā’ (women);
11.Prayer of ṭawāfof nisā’;
12.To stay awake during the night before the eleventh in Minā;
13.Stoning three jamarahs on the eleventh of Dhul-Ḥijjah;
14.To stay awake during the night before the twelfth in Minā;
15.Stoning three jamarahs on the twelfth of Dhul-Ḥijjah.
hajj ifrād’ and ‘umrah mufradah
Issue 15: Hajj ifrād and hajj tamattu‘ are similar in terms of rituals and acts of worship except for one major difference of animal slaughtering. It is mandatory in hajj tamattu‘ whereas it is a recommended act in hajjifrād.
Issue 16: ‘Umrah mufradah is similar to ‘umrahtamattu‘ except for the following differences:
1.The rituals of ‘umrah tamattu‘ comprise taqsīr as obligatory act; whereas in ‘umrah mufradah, it is optional for the men, i.e. either he can have his head shaved or perform taqsīr. The rulings for the women are that they should perform taqsīr in both ‘umrahmufradah and ‘umrah tamattu‘.
2.In ‘umrah tamattu, ṭawāf of nisā’ and its prayer are not obligatory. However on the basis of caution, one should perform both of them before taqsīr with the intention of rajā’ (hope of being desired in shar‘). In ‘umrah mufradah, ṭawāf ofnisā’ and its prayer are obligatory.
3.‘Umrah tamattu‘should be performed during the months of hajj: Shawwāl, Zilqa‘dah or Dhul-Ḥijjah; whereas ‘umrah mufradahcan be performed any time during the year.
4.There are five mīqāts (the place where the dress for hajj or ‘umrah is worn) for ‘umrahtamattu‘. Mīqāt for ‘umrah mufradah varies with distance from Mecca. People residing in Mecca have adanā al-ḥillas mīqāt whereas people living out of Mecca are obliged to wear iḥrāmfrom one of the five mīqāts nearest to them.
Issue 17: Hajj qirān differs from hajj ifrād mainly in two aspects: animal slaughtering and becoming muḥrīm. During hajjqirān, the animal for slaughtering should accompany the person wearing iḥrām, thereby animal slaughtering is obligatory for him.
Likewise, in the hajj qirān, iḥrāmis carried out by saying Labbayk (specific slogan of hajj) or by ish‘ār or taqlīd(their meanings will be mentioned in issue 140) but in hajj ifrād, iḥrām is materialized only by saying Labbayk.
General Rules for hajj tamattu‘
Issue 18: For the hajj tamattu‘ to be valid, there are certain conditions be fulfilled. They are as follows:
1)Intention, i.e. from the time of wearing iḥrām for ‘umrah oftamattu‘, he should intend to perform hajj tamattu‘; otherwise, his hajj is not in order;
2)Both ‘umrah and hajj need to be performed in the months of hajj;
3)Both ‘umrah and hajj need to be performed in the same year;
4)‘Umrah and hajj should be performed for one person and by one person. This implies that a person who is performing hajj on the behalf of a dead person needs to perform both ‘umrah and hajj himself. Hiring two individuals to carry out the ‘umrah and hajj separately is not permitted.
Issue 19: A person, whose duty is to perform hajj tamattu‘, cannot change it on purpose and by choice to perform hajjifrād or qirān.
Issue 20: A person, whose duty is to perform hajj tamattu‘ but knows that the time is too short to complete ‘umrah and join hajj, should change his intention from hajj tamattu‘to hajj ifrād and after completing the rites of hajj, he should perform ‘umrah mufradah.
Issue 21: A woman, who wants to perform hajj tamattu‘ but is menstruating at the point of mīqāt, should wear iḥrām for ‘umrah tamattu‘ at mīqāt if she thinks she may be purified some time before hajj tamattu‘ and will have enough time to take ghusl, perform all the deeds of ‘umrah tamattu‘, wear iḥrām for hajj tamattu‘, and reach ‘Arafāt by 'noon' on the day of ‘Arafa.
Then, if she becomes clean from menstruation and she has sufficient time for performing deeds of ‘umrah and is able to reach ‘Arafāt by 'noon' on the day of ‘Arafa, she should do so. In case, she does not become clean or does not have sufficient time to perform the ‘umrah rituals and reach ‘Arafāt on time, she should change his intention from ‘umrah tamattu‘ to hajj ifrād, with the same iḥrāmand then perform ‘umrah mufradah; this will compensate for hajj tamattu‘.
If she is sure she will not become clean before the time for iḥrām of hajj and going to ‘Arafāt on time or she will not have time to perform ‘umrahtamattu‘ rituals before going to ‘Arafāt on time, she should enter iḥrāmin mīqāt intending performing what is her real duty or iḥrām of hajj ifrād. After performing hajj ifrād rituals, she perform ‘umrah mufradah and what she has done replaces hajj tamattu‘.
However, if a woman is clean in mīqāt but begins to menstruate on the way to Mecca in state of iḥrām or before performing ṭawāf of ‘umrahand its prayer or during the course of ṭawāf before completion of fourth round and is certain that she cannot be clean to perform ‘umrahdeeds and reach ‘Arafāt by 'noon' on the ninth of Dhul-Ḥijjah, she has two choices:
a)She can change her intention from ‘umrah tamattu‘ to hajj ifrād and once hajj ifrād is done she should perform ‘umrah mufradah. These acts replace hajj tamattu‘.
b)She postpones ṭawāf of ‘umrah and its prayer and by performing sa‘y and taqsīr she exits iḥrām of ‘umrah. Then she should wear iḥrām of hajj, go and stay (wuqūf) in ‘Arafāt and Mash‘ar, and perform deeds in Minā and after returning to the Holy city of Mecca, she should perform ṭawāf of tamattu‘and its prayer as qaḍā’ — before performing ṭawāf of hajj and its prayer and sa‘yor after performing them. This act is a compensation for hajj tamattu‘ and nothing more is obligatory for her.
If she begins to menstruate after completing her fourth round of ṭawāf, she should leave remaining rounds of ṭawāf and its prayer, perform sa‘yand taqsīr and come out of iḥrām of ‘umrah. After this, she can stay in wuqūfs and perform rites in Minā, and upon return to Mecca, and after performing ṭawāf and its prayer and sa‘y or before performing all these rites, she should perform ṭawāf of ‘umrahand its prayer. This act is a compensation for her hajjtamattu‘ and nothing more is obligatory upon her.
Issue 22: The details of rites and commandments of hajj will be mentioned in part three and in several chapters.
 In order to know how she is to perform them, you may see issue 286.
Issue 126: The conditions of intention are as follows:
A- Intention of performing hajj or ‘umrah. Therfore, a person who wants to wear iḥrām for ‘umrahtamattu‘, should have intention to perform the rituals while wearing iḥrām.
B- He should have pure intention of obeying the orders of Allah Almighty because ‘umrahand hajj and all the rites are acts of worship. So, one should perform them with intention of seeking proximity to Allah Almighty.
C- He who wants to wear iḥrām should make intention to perform ‘umrahor hajj and if hajj is to be performed, he states its type whether it’s hajj tamattu‘,ifrād, qirān, hajj on behalf, ḥajjat ul-Islam, hajj of nadhr or recommended hajj.
Issue 127: While making the intention, it is not necessary for a person to have a detailed picture of the rites and deeds of hajj or ‘umrah in his mind; but it is enough to know them in general and perform them step by step.
Issue 128: For a person who wears iḥrām, it is not necessary for him to make the intention to stop committing the prohibited acts. Moreover, the intention of committing some forbidden acts does not make iḥrām invalid.
That said, unless he has intention of committing some acts which invalidate ‘umrah or hajj; like intercourse, (in some cases which will be mentioned). Because intention of these deeds does not conform to intention of performing hajj, rather intending doing these deeds contradicts the intention of iḥrām.
Issue 129: If someone intends hajj instead of ‘umrah due to negligence or ignorance, hisiḥrām is valid. For instance, while wearing iḥrām for ‘umrahof tamattu‘, if he says: I am going to wear iḥrām for the sake of Allah for hajj of tamattu‘but he has intention to perform the deed that is being performed by others thinking they are classified as hajj, hisiḥrām is valid.
Issue 130: Uttering one’s intention or imagining the intention in one’s mind is not necessary. Rather, if he intends to perform rites, it would suffice.
Issue 131: Intention must be accompanied by wearing iḥrām. So a previous intention will be sufficient only if it continues until the time of wearing iḥrām.
Second: Saying Labbayk (Talbiyah)
Issue 132: Saying talbiyah while wearing iḥrām is just like the takbīrat ul-iḥrāmin prayer. When a pilgrim says the talbiyah, he becomes muḥrimand is now prepared to perform the rites of ‘umrah.
Talbiyah means accepting the invitation of Allah Almighty who has invited qualified people to perform hajj. Therefore, it is worthy that one should pronounce the words of talbiyah with full humility.
Issue 133: According to the most correct view, the sentences of talbiyah are as follows:
"لَبّیکَ اللّهُمَّ لَبّیک، لَبّیکَ لا شریکَ لکَ لَبّیک"
"Labbayk Allāhumma labbayk, labbayka lā sharīka laka labbayk"
I am present in your court, here I am, O Allah. Here I am. You have no partners. Here I am.
If one says only this, his iḥrām is correct, however on the basis of mustaḥabbcaution, one should say these mentioned talbiyahs following the above talbiyah:
"اِنَّ الحَمدَ و النِّعمَةَ لَکَ وَ المُلکَ لَا شَرِيکَ لَکَ لَبَّيکَ "
"Innal-ḥamda wan-ni‘mata laka wal-mulk, lā sharīka laka labbayk"
Truly all praise, all favours and the kingdom belong to You. You have no partner, here I am.
And to observe more caution, one may add:
" لَبَّيکَ اللّهُمَّ لَبَّيکَ، اِنَّ الحَمدَ وَ النِّعمَةَ لَکَ وَ المُلکَ، لَا شَرِيکَ لَکَ لَبَّيکَ"
"Labbayk Allāhumma labbayk, innal-ḥamda wan-ni‘mata laka wal-mulk, lā sharīka laka labbayk"
Here I am, O Allah. Here I am. Truly all praise, all favours and the kingdom belong to You. You have no partner, here I am.
"لَبَّيکَ ذَا المَعارِج لَبَّيک، لَبَّيکَ داعِياً الي دارِ السَّلامِ لَبَّيکَ، لَبَّيکَ غَفَّارَ الذُنُوبِ لَبَّيکَ، لَبَّيکَ اهلَ التَّلبِيَةِ لَبَّيکَ، لَبَّيکَ ذَا الجَلالِ وَالاکرامِ لَبَّيکَ، لَبَّيکَ تُبدِيُ وَ المَعادُ اِلَيکَ لَبَّيکَ، لَبَّيکَ تَستَغنِي وَ يُفتَقَرُ اِلَيکَ لَبَّيک، لَبَّيکَ مَرهوُباً وَ مَرغُوباً اِلَيکَ لَبَّيکَ، لَبَّيکَ اِلهَ الحَقِّ لَبَّيکَ، لَبَّيکَ ذَا النَّعمَاءِ ِ وَالفَضلٍ الحَسَنِ الجَمِيل لَبَّيکَ ، لَبَّيکَ کَشّافَ الکُرَبِ العِظامِ لَبَّيکَ، لَبَّيکَ عَبدُکَ وَ ابنُ عَبدَيکَ لَبَّيکَ، لَبَّيکَ يا کَريمُ لَبَّيکَ"
Issue 134: Saying talbiyah once is obligatory but it is mustaḥabb that one repeats it as much as possible for him.
Issue 135: It is obligatory for a person to pronounce talbiyah correctly. Thus, if a person can learn the pronunciation exactly or somebody may say it word by word so that he says it correctly but he ignors these steps and pronounces it in a wrong way, it would not be enough. But if he cannot learn it due to shortage of time and he cannot say it correctly with somebody dictating, he should pronounce it in any possible way and it is based on caution that he should appoint a representative to say it on his behalf.
Issue 136: The person who neglects talbiyah purposely is similar to the person who neglects wearing iḥrām in mīqāt purposely.
Issue 137: The person who does not pronounce talbiyah correctly and has no excuse for it is similar to the man who neglects talbiyah purposely.
Issue 138: It is obligatory for a person who wears iḥrām for ‘umrah oftamattu‘, to stop saying talbiyah upon seeing the houses of the holy city of Mecca – though these new buildings around the Mecca which are considered a part of it. For a person who wears iḥrām for hajj, it is obligatory to stop talbiyahfrom the noon of the 9th of Dhul-Ḥijjah (the day of ‘Arfah).
Issue 139: Iḥrām for hajj tamattu‘and its ‘umrah, hajj ifrād and ‘umrah mufradah is materialized only by saying talbiyah, while iḥrām for hajj qirānis achieved by saying talbiyah along with ish‘ār or taqlīd.Ish‘ār is confined to the camel while taqlīd includes other types of sacrifices as well.
Issue 140: Ish‘ār means cutting the hump of the camel so that it becomes stained with blood and indicates that it is for slaughtering. Taqlīdrefers to hanging a string or a shoe in the neck of the animal by a pilgrim so that it may become clear that it is for slaughtering on the occasion of hajj.
third: Wearing two cloths of iḥrām
Issue 141: One of the cloths (loincloth) is fastened around waist, while with the other piece of cloth the shoulders should be covered. These two pieces of cloth should be worn after taking off all those clothes that are prohibited for a muḥrim.
Issue 142: On the basis of obligatory caution, one should wear these pieces of cloth before making intention of iḥrām and recitation of talbiyah.
Issue 143: It is not a condition that the loincloth covers the navel and the knees; it is sufficient that it is called loincloth and like those usually used for iḥrām.
Issue 144: It is not allowed to fasten the loincloth around the neck. However, there is no objection to fasten it using a pin or fastening its one part with the other unless it is not called loincloth any more. Likewise, fastening the shawl with a pin, a clip or by using small pebbles on both sides and fastening it with a thread in a common and well-known way is no problem, as long as it is called ridā' (shawl).
Issue 145: It is based on obligatory caution that one should wear the two cloths with the intention of seeking closeness to Allah Almighty.
Issue 146: The two cloths should be of the material allowed to wear during prayer. Therefore, wearing iḥrām of pure silk or parts of those animals whose meat is prohibited to eat, or parts of an animal which is not ritually slaughtered or an impure cloth is not sufficient for wearing iḥrām.
Issue 147: It is a condition for the loincloth that it should not be thin and transparent, whereas it is not a condition for the shawl to not be thin and transparent provided that it fits the definition of ridā' (shawl).
Issue 148: Wearing the two cloths is obligatory solely for men, while women are allowed to wear their usual clothes in state of iḥrām whether they are sewn or not. However, the clothes should be according to the guidelines for a person who recites prayer.
Issue 149: The dress of iḥrām for women should not be made of pure silk.
Issue 150: It is not a condition for the two cloths to be manufactured with cotton or wool. Nevertheless if they are made of leather, nylon or plastic, they should be called dress and usually worn. Likewise, there is no objection if the cloth is felted but called a dress and usually worn.
Issue 151: While wearing iḥrām, if a person does not change his sewn clothes on purpose, the validity of his iḥrām would be objectionable. On the basis of obligatory caution, one should repeat his intention and recitation of talbiyahafter taking off these sewn clothes.
Issue 152: If a person is compelled to wear sewn clothes due to cold weather, he is allowed to wear normal clothes such as a shirt but he should not wear it like normal clothes but he should place the cloth on his body upside down or inside out.
Issue 153: A person who is in state of iḥrām is allowed to take off iḥirāmfor the purpose of shower, bathing or the like. Changing the iḥrāmdress is also permitted.
Issue 154: A man in state of iḥrām can wear more than two [iḥrām] dresses due to cold weather. Likewise, he is allowed to use two shawls on his shoulders or two pieces of cloth around the waist.
Issue 155: If iḥrām becomes najis, on the basis of obligatory caution, one must change or purify it.
Issue 156: Being in state of wuḍū' or ghusl is not a condition for the validity of iḥrām; therefore, one can join the state of iḥrāmduring Janābat or menses. However, it is highly recommended to take ghuslbefore wearing iḥrām which is called 'recommended ghusl of iḥrām'. It is better that one does not neglect it.
2) The mustaḥabb acts of iḥrām
Issue 157: It is recommended that body is pure before wearing iḥrām, the extra hair of body is removed and nails are cut off. Brushing teeth is also recommended before wearing iḥrām.
It is also mustaḥabb to take ghusl before entering in the state of iḥrām at mīqāt. It is said that on cautionary basis this ghusl should not be neglected. Furthermore, it is recommended that one wears iḥrām after an obligatory noon-prayer or after any obligatory prayer or after offering a two-rak'ah prayer. It is mentioned in some hadiths that one offers six rak'ahs of recommended prayers as such prayers have great significance/reward.
For a person who wants to perform hajj, it is recommended that he does not cut his hair in the month of Dhul-Qa‘dah.
3) makrūh acts of iḥrām
Issue 158: Iḥrām with black, dirty and striped dresses is makrūh. It is better to wear white colour in state of iḥrām.
Likewise, it is makrūh to sleep on a yellow mattress or sleeps putting yellow pillow under one's head in state of iḥrām. Using henna before wearing iḥrām, in case its color would remain until wearing iḥrām, is also makrūh. It is also makrūh to say 'labbayk'in response to someone’s calling. Taking ghusl and rubbing the body with rough cloth is also considered makrūh.
Issue 362: Taqsīr is the fifth obligations of ‘umrah.
Issue 363: It is obligatory for a person to perform taqsīr after finishing sa‘y.Taqsīr involves cutting some strands of the hair from head, beard, mustache, or alternatively one may cut a nail of hand or foot.
Issue 364: Taqsīr, like other rituals is an act of worship in ‘umrah. So, it is obligatory that one should make intention just as intention for iḥrāmis made.
Issue 365: Shaving head is not sufficient to exit the state of iḥrām in ‘umrahtamattu‘. One must perform taqsīr so as to free oneself from state of ‘umrah tamattu‘. If a person shaves his head —purposely and knowingly — before rite of taqsīr, it is not sufficient and he must pay kaffārah of a sheep. But, if he has entered iḥrām for ‘umrahmufradah, he can choose between shaving head and doing taqsīr.
Issue 366: Plucking hair is not sufficient to exit iḥrām of ‘umrah tamattu‘; one should perform taqsīr as mentioned. If he plucks his hair instead oftaqsīr deliberately and knowingly, it is not sufficient. Moreover, he has to pay kaffārah for it.
Issue 367: If a person plucks his hair instead of doing taqsīr unknowingly and then performs hajj, his ‘umrahis void and the performed hajj will be considered as hajj ifrād. If hajj was obligatory for him, on the basis of obligatory caution, he should perform ‘umrah mufradahafter performing the rites of hajj and the next year, he has to perform ‘umrah tamattu‘ and hajj. The same ruling applies to a person who shaved his head instead of taqsīr and then performed hajj unknowingly.
Issue 368: It is not obligatory to do taqsīr directly after performing sa‘y.
Issue 369: If a person does not perform the act of taqsīr deliberately or ignorantly and without it he wears iḥrām for hajj, his ‘umrah would be void and his hajj would be considered as hajj ifrād. On the basis of obligatory caution, he should perform ‘umrah mufradah after performing hajj and if his hajj was obligatory, he should perform ‘umrah and hajj the next year.
Issue 370: If a person neglects taqsīr inadvertently and wears iḥrāmfor hajj, his iḥrāmwould be valid as well as his ‘umrah and hajj, and kaffārah is not obligatory for him. However, it is mustaḥabb to slaughter a sheep or goat as kaffārah. Rather, it is a caution not to neglect paying kaffarāh.
Issue 371: After performing taqsīr and exiting the state of iḥrām of ‘umrahtamattu‘, every forbidden thing in state of iḥrām becomes ḥalālincluding intercourse with one’s spouse.
Issue 372: Ṭawāf of nisā’ is not obligatory in ‘umrah tamattu‘. On the basis of caution, it is better to perform ṭawāf of nisā’followed by its prayer with the hope of reward before taqsīr.
However, if one wore iḥrām with the intention of ‘umrah mufradah, they — after the taqsīr or ḥalq — should perform ṭawāfof nisā’ and its prayer and only after that their spouse will be ḥalālfor them.
The manner and rulings of ṭawāf of nisā’ are similar to those of ṭawāf of ‘umrah which have been discussed already.
Issue 373: Apparently, one should perform ṭawāf of nisā’ for ‘umrah mufradah and hajj separately. For example, if a person performs two ‘umrah mufradahs or a hajj with an ‘umrah mufradah, although it is not remote that one ṭawāf of nisā’ is sufficient to make the wife ḥalāl for him, for the completion of rites he/she should perform two ṭawāfs of nisā’ for two ‘umrahs or for one ‘umrahor one hajj
 It means cutting some of the hair of head or beard or mustache or to cut a nail of hand or foot.