1) The obligatory prayers are:
1. Daily prayers
2. The prayer for tawāf performed after the tawāf of the Ka'ba
3. Āyāt prayer to be performed upon solar and lunar eclipses, earthquakes, and such.
4. Prayer over a dead body
5. Qaḍā’ prayers of one’s father and mother, obligatory upon the eldest son.
6. Prayers which become obligatory on account of a vow (nadhr), covenant (‘ahd) or oath (qasam).
Place where prayer is performed
47) The place where one can offer his prayer should fulfil eight conditions:
First condition: Being permissible by the owner
48) The place of offering the prayer should not be usurped. Performing the prayer on a usurped property is invalid, even if it is a usurped carpet or bench.
49) If a person performs the prayer in a place which is usurped but he does not know or he has forgotten, his prayer is valid. It is also valid if he does not know that using a usurped place is forbidden.
50) If a person owns a property in partnership with another person, and their shares are not divided, he cannot offer the prayer without the consent of his partner.
51) About a land that used to be an endowment in the past and the government has taken it over and built a school, a mosque, or an office there: if there is a considerable probability that the said usage by the government was with religious permission, there will be no problem in performing prayers on it. Also, if there is a considerable probability that the responsible official has built a school with religious and legal permissions for building the school on that land, there is no problem in performing the prayer there.
52) If a person is given an evacuation notice for a government-owned house after the end of his allotted time for residence, and he is not allowed by the concerned authorities to continue residing there, all uses of the house (including performing prayer in it) will be considered acts of usurpation.
53) There is no problem in performing the prayer in an office which used to be the site of a graveyard in the past, unless it is proved through a shar‘ī way that the ground upon which this office has been built is an endowment for the burial of the dead, and it has been taken for construction through non-shar‘ī ways.
54) If one is certain about the usurpation of places taken by a tyrannical regime, the rules and consequences of the usurped places will apply to them.
Second condition: Being still
55) The place on which a person offers prayer should be still in such a way that he can perform the acts of prayer calmly and without shaking. Therefore, performing prayer on a motorcycle or some spring mattresses, or the like is not valid, unless it is necessary for a person on account of shortage of time or due to some other excuse to offer the prayer in such places.
56) It is obligatory for passengers on buses that travel between cities to ask the driver to stop the bus at a place appropriate for praying, if they fear the lapse of the prayer’s time; and it will be obligatory for the driver to accept their request. If he refuses to stop the bus for an acceptable reason, or no reason, the passengers should perform the prayer on the bus while it is moving, and observe qiblah, standing position, rukū‘ and prostration as much as possible.
Third condition: It should not be a place where it is forbidden to stay.
57) The place for performing prayer should not be anywhere that it is forbidden to stay, such as a place where the person’s life is in danger. It also should not be somewhere which it is forbidden to step or sit on, such as a carpet with the name of God or verses of the Qur’an woven everywhere on it.
Fourth condition: It is not ahead of the graves of the Prophet (s) and the Imams (a).
58) The praying person should not stand ahead of the graves of the Prophet (s) and the Imams (a), but there is no problem with standing in line with them.
Fifth condition: The place of prostration should be pure
59) The place of prostration should be pure, but there is no problem if the place where the person offers prayer is najis except the place where he puts his forehead, and his prayer is valid.
Sixth condition: It does not make the clothes or body of the praying person najis.
60) If the place of prayer is najis, it should not be so wet that its wetness reaches the body or the clothing of the praying person. Thus, if the place of the prayer is najis, but not so wet that its wetness reaches the body or the clothing of the praying person and the place of the prostration is pure, there is no problem in performing the prayer there.
Seventh condition: There should be a distance of—at least—one handspan between a man and a woman who are praying, by obligatory precaution.
61) By obligatory precaution, there should be a distance of—at least—one handspan between a man and a woman who are praying. In this case, their prayers are valid if they are in the same row or if she stands in front of the man.
Eighth condition: It should be flat.
62) The difference in height between the place of forehead in prostration and the place of the knees or toes should not be more than four joined fingers.
63) It is disliked to perform obligatory prayers in the Ka‘bah, and based on obligatory precaution, one should not perform the prayer on the roof of the Ka‘bah.
64) Performing prayer on a prayer mat which has some drawings on it or using a turba which has some drawings on i`s no problem by itself, but if it gives any pretext to some people who make accusations against the Shi‘a, producing it and performing prayer on it is not permissible. Also, using them is disliked if it distracts the attention and the presence of heart in the prayer.
Rulings about the qiblah
92) Muslims should offer their prayers facing the Ka‘bah, and, thus, they call it qiblah. However, for those who are away from it, it is not possible to face it in the exact direction, so it is sufficient for them to perform it in a way that it is commonly regarded as facing the qiblah.
93) The basis in facing the qiblah is that a person faces al-Bayt al-‘Atīq [the Ka‘bah] along the surface of the earth, i.e. the shortest distance from his position toward the Ka‘bah on the surface of the earth. Therefore, if one stands at a point on the earth where the direct lines emanating from it in four directions and passing over the earth’s surface towards Mecca are equal in distance, he can pray to any direction he wishes. But if the distance in some directions is longer so much that it is not facing the qiblah according to the common view, it will be obligatory to choose the direction of the shorter distance.
94) Recommended prayers can be offered while one is walking or riding, and in such conditions, it is not necessary to face the qiblah.
95) A person who wants to offer prayer has to become certain and confident about the direction of qiblah, whether through a reliable compass, through the sun and stars (for those who know how to use them), or through other ways; and if he cannot acquire confidence, he should offer the prayer in whichever direction he considers more likely.
96) A person who does not have any means to find out the direction of the qiblah and does not give more probability to any direction should perform the prayer in four directions, based on (obligatory) precaution. But if there is not enough time to perform the prayer in four directions, he should perform the prayer in the maximum possible number of directions.
97) A person who has no certainty about the direction of the qiblah should consider the most probable direction in his view as the qiblah for performing actions other than prayer, which should be done facing the qiblah, such as slaughtering an animal, etc.; and if he deems none of the possibilities for any direction any higher, he can perform that action facing any direction.
98) [This ruling was omitted according to the latest version of Ayatollah Khamenei’s manual of practical rulings.]
99) The method determining the direction of the qiblah by fixing a pole is as follows: upon shar‘ī ẓuhr of Mecca (when the sound of the adhān in Mecca is heard) on two days—25 May and 16 July—when the sun is exactly above the Ka‘bah, if a person fixes a pole, such as a straight piece of wood, or metal bar vertically in flat ground, the pole’s shadow shows the opposite direction of qiblah (meaning that the direction of qiblah would be along the direction of the shadow of the pole on the opposite side, where there is no shadow).
Order among prayers
122) Order should be observed between the ẓuhr and ‘aṣr prayers and between the maghrib and ‘ishā’ prayers, meaning that a person has to perform the ẓuhr prayer and then the ‘aṣr prayer. Order should also be observed between the maghrib and ‘ishā’ prayers, and if a person intentionally performs the ‘aṣr prayer before the ẓuhr prayer, or performs the ‘ishā’ prayer before maghrib prayer, his prayer will be void.
123) If a person mistakenly performs the second prayer first, for example, he performs the ‘ishā’ prayer before the maghrib prayer, and realizes that after he ended the prayer, his prayer is correct.
124) If a person begins the prayer with the intention of the ẓuhr prayer, and, during the prayer, he recollects that he has already offered the ẓuhr prayer, he has to break his prayer and then offer the ‘aṣr prayer. The same ruling applies to the maghrib and ‘ishā’ prayers.
125) If a person makes the intention for the ‘aṣr prayer and, during the prayer, he recollects that he has not offered the ẓuhr prayer yet, if he is in the time common to performing both ẓuhr and ‘aṣr prayers, he should immediately change the intention to the ẓuhr prayer, finish the prayer, and then perform the ‘aṣr prayer. But if it happened in the time specific to the ẓuhr prayer, the obligatory precaution is that the person should change the intention to the ẓuhr prayer, finish the prayer, and then perform both prayers (ẓuhr and ‘aṣr) in order. The same ruling applies to the maghrib and ‘ishā’ prayer if the person has not entered rukū‘ of the fourth rak‘ah.
Adhān and iqāmah
126) Reciting the adhān and iqāmah before the daily prayers is recommended. This recommendation is emphasized about the fajr and maghrib prayers, especially when they are performed in congregation, but reciting adhān and iqāmah is not prescribed for the other obligatory prayers, such as the āyāt prayer.
127) The adhān consists of eighteen phrases, as follows:
1. Allāhu akbar, four times (“God is greater than any description”).
2. Ash-hadu an lā ilāha illallāh, two times (“I testify that there is no god but Allah”).
3. Ash-hadu anna Muhammadan rasūlullāh, two times (“I testify that Muhammad is Allah’s Messenger”).
4. Ḥayya ‘ala- ṣ- ṣalah, two times (“Hasten to prayer”).
5. Ḥayya ‘ala-l-falāḥ, two times (“Hasten to ultimate happiness”).
6. Ḥayya ‘alā khayr il-‘amal, two times (“Hasten to the best of acts”).
7. Allāhu akbar, two times (“God is greater than any description”).
8. Lā ilāha illā Allāh, two times (“There is no god but Allah”).
As for the iqāmah, it consists of seventeen phrases, like the adhān, except that in the iqāmah, Allahu akbar is reduced in the beginning to twice, and at the end to once; and after hayya ‘alā khayr-il-‘amal, qad qāmat-iṣ-ṣalāh (“the prayer is established”) must be pronounced twice.
128) Saying ashhadu anna ‘Aliyyan waliyyullāh” (“I testify that Ali is the Friend of God”) in the adhān and iqāmah with the intention of it being a symbol for the Shi‘a is good and important, and it should be said only with the intention of closeness to Allah, but it is not a part of the adhān and iqāmah.
129) Reciting the adhān (which announces the beginning of the time for prayer) at the beginning of the times for the daily obligatory prayers and its repetition by the listeners in loud voice are among the highly recommended actions from the viewpoint of Islamic law.
130) There is no problem in saying the adhān in a group form in public places as long as it does not lead to obstruction of the way or annoying others.
131) There is no problem in saying the adhān in its common manner on the roofs of houses, particularly for fajr prayer, even if some neighbors object.
132) There is no problem in broadcasting the adhān in the usual way by means of a loudspeaker to announce the beginning of the time of the fajr prayer. But there is no religious justification for, and even there is a problem in, broadcasting verses of the Qur’an, supplications, or the like at any time using loudspeakers of the mosque if it annoys the neighbors.
133) The recitation of a non-maḥram woman does not suffice for a man, and there is a problem in it for maḥram men too (meaning that if a man who is her mahram hears her adhān recitation, based on obligatory precaution, the task of reciting adhān will not be nullified for him).
288) In all obligatory and recommended prayers, it is recommended to raise the hands and recite supplication in the second rak‘ah, after recitation of Sura al-Fatiḥah and before rukū‘. This action is called qunūt. In Friday prayer, qunūt is performed in the first rak‘ah before rukū‘ and in the second rak‘ah after rukū‘. In the prayers of Eid al-Fiṭr and Eid al-Aḍḥā, in the first rak‘ah, qunūt is performed five times and in the second rak‘ah, it is performed four times.
289) In qunūt, any dhikr, supplication or verse of the Qur’an can be recited. One can suffice with reciting one ṣalawāt, subḥānallāh, bismillāh, or bismillāh ir-raḥmān ir-raḥīm; but it is better to recite the supplications which are mentioned in the Qur’an, such as رَبَّنَا آتِنَا فِی الدُّنْیَا حَسَنَةً وَفِی الآخِرَةِ حَسَنَةً وَقِنَا عَذَابَ النَّارِ or dhikrs transmitted from Imams (a) such as لا إله إلا الله الحلیم الکریم، لا إله إلا الله العلی العظیم، سبحان الله رب السموات السبع و رب الارضین السبع وما فیهن وما بینهن ورب العرش العظیم، والحمد لله رب العالمین.
Ta‘qīb (recommended supplications recited after prayers)
290) The ta‘qīb of the prayer does not need to be recited in Arabic, but it is better for a person to read supplications and dhikrs which are transmitted from the Imams (a). Among the best of them is a dhikr known as Tasbīḥ of Fātima (a) which is comprised of: Allāhu Akbar 34 times, alḥamdulillāh 33 times, subḥānallāh 33 times.
291) It is recommended that after prayer one perform a prostration of thankfulness, which is to place one’s forehead on the ground to express thankfulness for all divine blessings and the God-given opportunity for prayer, and it is better to say shukran lillāh three times or more.
 In the books of supplication, ta‘qībs containing great and beautiful messages and phrases are transmitted from the Imams (a).
Translation of the prayer
It is good for person who is praying to say the words and dhikrs of the prayer while attending to their meaning and with humility and presence of the heart in order to benefit from the opportunity of prayer for purification of the soul and drawing the heart close to the Great and the Merciful God.
Translation of Sura al-Fatiḥah
بِسمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحمٰنِ الرَّحیمِ
In the Name of God, whose unrestricted mercy and grace embrace all humans in the world, and whose eternal mercy and forgiveness belong specifically to believers.
الحمدلله رب العالمین
Praise and worship belong to God, the Lord of all the worlds.
He whose giving in the world includes all humans, and whose eternal forgiveness and blessings are specific to believers.
مالک یوم الدین
He Who is the Owner and Master of the Day of Retribution (Judgment).
إیاک نعبد و إیاک نستعین
You alone we serve, and to You alone do we ask for help.
إهدنا الصراط المستقیم
Guide us on the straight path,
صراط الذین أنعمت علیهم
the path of those whom You have blessed (cast into their hearts the light of Your knowledge)
غیر المغضوب علیهم و لاالضالین
—such as have not incurred Your wrath, nor are astray (meaning that after You bestowed upon them a great blessing, they did not disobey You or show ingratitude to incur Your wrath, or go astray).
Translation of Sura al-Tawḥīd
بِسمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحمٰنِ الرَّحیمِ
(Its translation was mentioned above.)
قُل هُوَ اللَّهُ أَحَدٌ
Say: He is Allah, the One
Allah is in need of none [and on Whom all depend],
لَم یَلِد وَلَم یولَد
neither begat, nor was begotten,
وَلَم یَکُن لَهُ کُفُوًا أَحَدٌ
nor has He any equal.
Translations of the dhikrs of rukū‘ and prostration and some recommended phrases
Glorified is God
سُبْحَانَ ربی العظیم و بحمده
Glorified is my Lord, the Almighty, and I praise Him
سُبْحَانَ ربی الأعلی و بحمده
Glorified is my Lord, the Highest, and I praise Him
سمع الله لمن حمده
May God attend to the one who praises Him.
أستغفرالله ربی و أتوب علیه
I ask God, my Lord, to forgive me, and I return to Him.
بحول الله و قوته أقوم و أقعد
With the will of God and His power, I stand and I sit.
Translation of the dhikrs of qunūt
رَبَّنَا آتِنَا فِی الدُّنْیَا حَسَنَةً وَفِی الآخِرَةِ حَسَنَةً
Our Lord! Give us good in this world and good in the Hereafter,
وَقِنَا عَذَابَ النَّارِ
and save us from the punishment of the Fire.
لا إله إلا الله الحلیم الکریم
There is no god except God, the Most Forbearing, the Most Generous;
لا إله إلا الله العلی العظیم
There is no god except God, the Highest, the Greatest.
سبحان الله رب السماوات السبع
Glorified is God, the Lord of the seven skies
و رب الأرضین السبع
And the Lord of the seven earths
و ما فیهن و ما بینهن
And (the Lord of) whatever is in them and between them
و رب العرش العظیم
And the Lord of the Great Throne
والحمد لله رب العالمین
And praise and worship belong to God, the Lord of all the worlds.
Translation of tasbīḥāt al-arba‘ah
Glory be to God,
And praise and worship belong to God;
و لا إله إلا الله
There is no god except God,
And God is Greater.
Translation of tashahhud and salām
Praise and worship belong to God.
أشهد أن لا إله إلا الله
I testify that there is no god except God.
وحده لا شریک له
He is One and has no partner.
و أشهد أن محمد عبده و رسوله
And I testify that Muhammad is His servant and His Messenger.
اللهم صل علی محمد و آل محمد
O God! Send blessings to Muhammad (s) and Muhammad’s (s) Household.
و تقبل شفاعته و ارفع درجته
And accept his intercession and increase his position.
السلام علیک أیها النبی و رحمة الله و برکاته
Peace be upon you, O Prophet, and the mercy of God and His blessings!
السلام علینا وعلی عباد الله الصالحین
Peace be upon us and upon the righteous servants of God!
السلام علیکم و رحمة الله و برکاته
Peace be upon you [believers, angels] and the mercy of God and His blessings!
392) A person who does not offer an obligatory prayer in its prescribed time should perform the qaḍā’ of that prayer, though he may have been sleeping during the entire prayer time or may have failed to offer it due to being ill or drunk. However, qaḍā’ is not obligatory upon a person who has been unconscious during the entire prayer time, unless he himself has caused his unconsciousness, in which, based on obligatory precaution, qaḍā’ should be performed. Similarly, qaḍā’ is not obligatory on a non-Muslim who has embraced Islam and a woman who has been in the states of menstruation or lochia.
393) If a person realizes after the time for the prayer has lapsed that the prayer he offered in time was void, he should perform its qaḍā’—for instance, a person who had performed ghusl incorrectly due to lack of knowledge about the religious ruling; thus, performing qaḍā’ of the prayers he had performed in the state of hadath akbar is obligatory upon him.
394) If a person is certain that he has missed some prayers or performed them incorrectly, it is obligatory to perform their qaḍā’, but if he is not certain about it, whether it is doubtful or likely, it is not obligatory for him to perform their qaḍā’.
395) It is not necessary to perform qaḍā’ prayers in the same order that they were missed, except for the qaḍā’ of ẓuhr and ‘aṣr prayers of the one day or maghrib and ‘ishā’ prayers of the one day. Also, it is not necessary to repeat qaḍā’ prayers [out of precaution] to make sure that the actual qaḍā’ prayers are performed in their due places. Therefore, if a person intends to perform one year of qaḍā’ prayers, he can perform them as following: for example, he can perform twenty times the fajr prayer, then twenty times the ẓuhr and twenty times the ‘aṣr prayer and then twenty times the maghrib prayer and twenty times the 'ishā' prayer and continue that for a year, the same way he can begin one of the daily prayers and continue in the order of daily prayers and continue the same order.
396) If a person has missed some prayers and does not know their number, for example, he does not know if they were two or three prayers, it is sufficient if he performs the lesser number (i.e. the number of prayers he is certain that he has missed).
397) If a person performs ghusl after janābah three times, say for example, on the twentieth, twenty-fifth and twenty-seventh of the month, and afterwards becomes certain that one of these ghusls was incorrect, based on obligatory precaution, he must perform the qaḍā of the prayers in a manner that he becomes certain that he has discharged his obligations.
398) Nāfilah and recommended prayers do not count as qaḍā’ prayers, and if any qaḍā’ prayers are due upon someone, then he must perform them with the intention of qaḍā’ prayers.
399) For those who are not able to perform qaḍā’ of all their missed prayers, it is obligatory to perform qaḍā’ for their missed prayers as much as they can and to make a will for the remaining qaḍā’ prayers.
 Translator’s note: It refers to the state of ritual impurity caused by janābah, menstruation or lochia and changing it to purity requires ghusl.
Prayer performed by hiring
400) No one can perform qaḍā’ prayers for another person while he is alive, even if he is unable to perform the qaḍā’ prayer, but after he dies, there is no problem in that. It is obligatory upon every mukallaf to perform his own obligatory prayers in any possible manner, so hiring another person for prayer, with or without a wage, does not discharge the obligation.
401) Mentioning the specifics of the deceased person is not necessary in performing prayer by hiring. Order should be observed only between ẓuhr and ‘aṣr and between maghrib and ‘ishā’. If in the contract of hiring, there is no condition stipulated for performing the prayers in a particular manner (for example, it is not mentioned that the prayers should be performed in the mosque or at a certain time), and there is no specific manner of the prayer presupposed by the parties [i.e. the apparently unconditional phrase is meant by both parties to indicate a certain type of performing prayer], he must perform the prayers with the obligatory acts of the prayer.
Qaḍā’ prayers of the parents
402) It is an obligation upon the eldest son to perform his parents’ qaḍā’ prayers after their deaths, provided that they did not leave them due to deliberate disobedience. And even if his parents left them due to rebellion and disobedience, the eldest son should, as a recommended precaution, perform their qaḍā’ prayers.
403) If a father or mother never performed any prayer, based on obligatory precaution, even in this case too, performing their qaḍā’ prayers is obligatory upon the eldest son.
404) By the eldest son, the living eldest son at the time of a parent’s death is meant. Therefore, if the eldest son, mature or not, dies before his parents, the obligation of performing qaḍā’ prayers of the parents will be upon the eldest son who is alive when his father or mother dies.
405) The child who has the obligation to perform qaḍā’ prayers of the parents is the eldest among the male children (if there is more than one male child). Therefore, if the eldest child of a person is a girl and his second child is a boy, it is obligatory for the son, i.e. the father’s second child, to perform the parent’s missed prayers.
406) If someone other than the eldest son performs the parent’s missed prayers, he will be discharged of the obligation.
407) It is obligatory upon the eldest son to perform the prayers he is certain his parents missed, and if he does not know if they have missed any prayers, he has no obligation, and it is not obligatory for him to investigate it.
408) It is obligatory for the eldest son to perform his father’s missed prayers by any means possible. If he is unable to do so, he is excused.
409) If the eldest son already has the obligation to perform some missed prayers of his own when the performance of his parents’ missed prayers is also added to his obligations, he has a choice in this situation; that is, it is correct for him to start performing either of them.
410) If the eldest son dies after the deaths of the parents, others will have no obligation, and performing the missed prayers of the parents will not become obligatory for his son or brother upon his death.
Prayers for Eid al-Fiṭr and Eid al-Aḍḥā
418) The prayers of Eid al-Fiṭr and Eid al-Aḍḥā are not obligatory but are recommended in the present period (the age of the Major Occultation).
419) Eid al-Fiṭr and Eid al-Aḍḥā prayers consist of two rak‘ahs. In the first rak‘ah, one should recite Sura al-Fatiḥah and another sura and then say five takbīrs, and after every takbīr he should recite qunūt. After the fifth qunūt, he should say another takbīr and then perform rukū‘ and two prostrations. He should then stand up and say four takbīrs in the second rak‘ah, and recite qunūt after each one. Then, he should say the fifth takbīr and perform rukū‘ and two prostrations. After the second set of prostrations, he should recite tashahhud, and then complete the prayer with salām.
420) There is no problem with prolonging or shortening the qunūt of Eid prayers, and it does not make them invalid, but increasing or decreasing the number of the qunūts is not permissible.
421) The prayer of Eid does not have any iqāma, but if an imam of the congregational prayer recites iqāma for the Eid prayer, it harms neither the Eid prayer of the imam nor those of the followers.
422) It is permissible for the representatives of walĪ al-faqĪh who are authorized by him to hold Eid prayers, and also for the Friday prayer imams appointed by him to hold Eid prayers in congregation in the present time (when Imam (a) is in the occultation). As for any other individual, based on (obligatory) precaution, they should perform them individually, and it does not matter if he performs them in congregation as something hopefully—not surely—desired in Islamic law. If it is deemed necessary that only one Eid prayer be held in a city, it is preferable that it not be led by anyone other than the imam of Friday prayer appointed by the walĪ al-faqĪh.
423) Eid prayer has no qaḍā’.
424) Repeating the congregational prayer due to the presence of a new group of followers in the Eid prayer has a problem.
Miscellaneous issues regarding prayer
463) There is no particular way prescribed for waking family members for performing the morning prayer.
464) It is recommended for the guardian of children to teach them the rulings of Islamic law and the rites of worship when they reach the age of discernment.
465) The statement “one who drinks alcoholic drink has no prayer for forty days” means that drinking alcoholic drinks impedes the acceptance of prayers, not that it exempts them from the obligation to perform prayers and makes it obligatory to perform qaḍā’ instead, or that it would become obligatory to perform them both adā’ and qaḍā’.
466) There is no problem in shaking hands after the salām and finishing the prayer. In general, shaking hands with believers is recommended.
467) When a person sees someone performing some acts of prayer wrongly, he has no obligation in this regard [to tell them they are erring] unless his mistake is a result of his ignorance of the ruling, in which case it is obligatory to guide him.