1. Obligatory prayers are as follows:
1. Daily prayers;
2. Prayer of ṭawāf which is said after obligatory tawāf around Ka‘bah;
3. Āyāt prayer which is performed due to natural phenomena such as a lunar/solar eclipse, earthquake, etc.
4. Mayyit prayer which is performed on the corpse of a deceased Muslim
5. Qaḍā’ prayers of one's father and, by obligatory caution, of the mother as well; to be performed by the eldest son.
6. The prayer which becomes obligatory due to nadhr (reciprocal vow), ‘ahd (covenant), qasam (oath), or through being hired to preform it.
2. Daily prayers are among the most important obligations in Islamic Law. Furthermore, they are pillars of the religion and should never be neglected.
3. The daily prayers consist of 17 rak‘ah which are made up of the following:
1. Fajr prayer (two rak‘ah)
2. Ẓuhr prayer (four rak‘ah)
3. ‘Aṣr prayer (four rak‘ah)
4. Maghrib prayer (three rak‘ah)
5. ‘ishā’ prayer (four rak‘ah)
The time for fajr prayer
4. The time for fajr prayer begins from the true dawn (al-fajr al-ṣādiq) and continues until sunrise.
* The true dawn is opposed to the false dawn (al-fajr al-kāẓib). The false dawn being a light, which appears before the true dawn, that moves upwards instead of spreading across the horizon. The true dawn is when a dim, white light which spreads across the horizon and becomes more intensely illuminated as time passes. Since the the true dawn starts out very dim, in order to witness it, one needs to have clear and unobstructed visibility of the eastern horizon in total darkness. Hence, it would be extremely difficult to observe it from within the city. Therefore, as it is difficult to ascertain the time of fajr, one should exercise caution.
5. Regarding the starting time for fajr prayer, there is no difference between a night which is moonlit and one which is not. Although, it is preferred to observe caution in a moonlit night by delaying ones prayer until the brightness brought forth by the morning takes over the brightness of the moon.
The time for ẓuhr and ‘aṣr prayer
6. The time for ẓuhr prayer is from the zawāl of the sun (i.e. immediately after midday when the sun begins to decline) until there is just enough time before sunset to perform the ‘aṣr prayer.
* As the sun rises from the east, objects have long shadows extending westward which reduce in size while the sun rises to it’s highest point – during this time objects either no longer have a shadow, or their shadow will be small extending slightly north or south, depending on how the sun is shining – thereafter the shadows of objects will begin extending towards the east. This is the time of ẓuhr prayer which is referred to as zawāl of the sun.
7. The time of ‘aṣr prayer begins when enough time has passed after the zawāl of the sun for one to have completed their ẓuhr prayer and ends at sunset.
8. Both ẓuhr and ‘aṣr prayers have special and common times. A few minutes — enough to say it — after shar‘ī noon is special for ẓuhr prayer. A few minutes — enough to perform it — before sunset is special to ‘aṣr prayer. The gap between these two special times is common time for both.
9. If one has not said ẓuhr prayer when the time special for ‘aṣr prayer arrives, the time for ẓuhr prayer finishes and they must perform ‘aṣr prayer.
The Time of Maghrib/‘Ishā’ Prayer
10. The time for the maghrib prayer arrives when the redness that appears in the east after sunset passes over until a few minutes — just enough to offer the ‘ishā’ prayer — before shar‘ī midnight.
11. The time for the ‘ishā’ prayer begins a few minutes — sufficient for performing the maghrib prayer — after maghrib adhān and continues until the shar‘ī midnight.
12. For determining shar‘ī midnight, regarding the prayer of maghrib and ‘ishā’ and the like, the length of the night from sunset till fajr adhān should be calculated.
13. Both maghrib and ‘ishā’ prayers have special and common times. A few minutes — enough to perform it — after maghrib is special for maghrib prayer. A few minutes — enough to perform it — before shar‘ī midnight is special to ‘ishā’ prayer. The gap between these two special times is common time for both.
14. If a person has not offered the maghrib prayer by the special time of ‘ishā’ prayer, they should offer the ‘ishā’ prayer first and then the maghrib prayer.
15. If a person does not offer the maghrib or ‘ishā’ prayers until 'midnight' due to a sin or an excuse, according to the obligatory caution, he should offer them before the morning adhān, without the intention of performing it as qaḍā’ or adā’ (rather with the intention of doing one's actual duty).
 Translator’s note: The time gap between sunset and when the redness that appears in the east after sunset disappears varies with the change of the seasons of the year.
Rulings regarding the Times of Prayer
16. It is mustaḥabb that one offers prayers at the beginning of their times as Islamic instructions advise it with emphasis. If a person cannot offer a prayer at the beginning of its time, then the closest to this time you offer, the better unless it is better to delay it for a reason, such as when a person wants to perform the prayer in congregation.
17. Regarding the timing of daily prayers (even for the areas close to the North Pole), one has to observe the particular horizon of his own area.
18. A person can start offering prayers only when he becomes certain that the time has set in, when two just persons inform him that the time has set in, or if a reliable and punctual reciter of the adhān recites the adhān.
19. If a person becomes confident that the time for prayers has set in and he begins offering prayers, but then doubts during the prayers whether the time has actually set in or not, his prayer is void. However, if a person is confident that the time for prayer has set in while he is praying, and doubts whether the part of the prayer that he has already performed was in the time or not, his prayer is valid.
20. If the shar‘ī timings, which are announced by mass media or the like, bring confidence to a person about the beginning of the time, he can rely on them.
21. If as soon as the adhān begins to be recited, one becomes certain that the time for prayer has arrived, it is not necessary to wait until the end of the adhān, and he can begin the prayer.
22. If a creditor demands his money, the debtor should pay him first if he is able and then perform the prayer. The same ruling applies in case of another immediate obligatory act. However, if the time for prayer is short, he has to perform the prayer first.
23. If the time for prayer is so short that due to doing some mustaḥabb acts of prayer, some of it is recited after the time, he should not perform that mustaḥabb act; for example, if by reciting qunūt, some of the prayers are recited after the time, he should not recite qunūt.
24. A person who has time enough to perform only one rak‘ah should perform the prayer with the intention of adā’, but he should not postpone performing the prayer until such a time intentionally.
25. If it is just enough to offer five rak‘ah of prayer until sunset, one should offer both ẓuhr and ‘aṣr prayers. But if the time is shorter, he should offer only ‘aṣr prayer and make up for ẓuhr prayer later.
If it is just enough to offer five rak‘ah of prayer until midnight, he should offer both maghrib and ‘ishā’ prayers. But if it is less than that, he should offer the ‘ishā’ prayer first, and then the maghrib prayer. According to the obligatory caution, he should not perform it as qaḍā’, but should recite it with the intention of doing the actual duty.
26. A person who is a traveler, if he has enough time to perform three rak‘ah of prayer until sunset, he should perform both ẓuhr and ‘aṣr prayers, but if he has less time, he should perform only the ‘aṣr prayer and make up for ẓuhr prayer. If till midnight, there is enough time to perform at least four rak‘ah, one must perform both maghrib and ‘ishā’ prayers. If the time is too short to perform four rak‘ah, one must say ‘ishā’ prayer first and then perform maghrib prayer, according to the obligatory caution, without intending adā’ or qaḍā’; rather with the intention of one's actual duty.
If, after performing ‘ishā’ prayer, it becomes clear that there is one rak‘ah or more left until midnight, the maghrib prayer should be performed immediately with the intention of adā’.
Order among prayers
27. A person has to perform ẓuhr prayer and then the ‘aṣr prayer. The same rule applies to maghrib and ‘ishā’ prayers. If a person intentionally performs ‘aṣr prayer before ẓuhr prayer, or performs ‘ishā’ prayer before maghrib prayer, his prayer is void.
28. If a person, due to a mistake or inadvertence performs the second prayer first, for example, he performs ‘ishā’ prayer before maghrib prayer, and realizes that after he has ended the prayer, his prayer is correct.
29. If a person makes the intention for ‘aṣr prayer and, during the prayer, he recollects that he has not offered the ẓuhr prayer yet, if it is the time common for performing both ẓuhr and ‘aṣr prayers, he should immediately change the intention to the ẓuhr prayer, finish the prayer, and then perform the ‘aṣr prayer. But if it happens during the time specific to the ẓuhr prayer, by obligatory caution, he should change the intention to the ẓuhr prayer, finish the prayer, and then perform both prayers (ẓuhr and ‘aṣr) in order. The same ruling applies to the maghrib and ‘ishā’ prayer if the person has not entered rukū‘ of the fourth rak‘ah.
30. Thinking that one has said the maghrib prayer, if he starts ‘ishā’ prayer and then realizes that he has made a mistake:
if it happens during the time common for both prayers and before rukū‘ of the fourth rak‘ah, one must change the intention back to maghrib prayer, complete the prayer and then offer ‘ishā’ prayer;
if he is in rukū‘ of the fourth rak‘ah or after it, one must complete the prayer as a caution, and then offer maghrib and ‘ishā’ prayers in order;
If it is during the specific time for maghrib prayer and before rukū‘ of the fourth rak‘ah
by obligatory caution, one changes the intention back to maghrib prayer, completes the prayer, and then perform both prayers in order.
31. If a person begins the prayer with the intention of the ẓuhr prayer, and, during the prayer, he recollects that he has already offered the ẓuhr prayer, he has to break his prayer and then offer the ‘aṣr prayer. The same ruling applies to the maghrib and ‘ishā’ prayers.
32. There are many mustaḥabb prayers which are called nawāfil (the plural form of nāfilah), among which daily nawāfil (specially night prayer) have been emphasized more.
33. Daily nawāfil are those mustaḥabb prayers which are to be offered every day. Performing these nawāfil is very important, and great rewards are mentioned for them. Among these nawāfil, which are said after midnight, are of special and unique importance among mustaḥabb prayers. It has great spiritual benefits, and it is appropriate for Muslims to care to recite it.
34. The daily nawāfil are as follows:
1. Nāfilah of ẓuhr: Eight rak‘ah (four two-rak‘ah prayers) to be performed before the ẓuhr prayer.
2. Nāfilah of ‘aṣr: Eight rak‘ah (four two-rak‘ah prayers) to be performed before the ‘aṣr prayer.
3. Nāfilah of maghrib: four rak‘ah (two two-rak‘ah prayers) to be performed after the maghrib prayer.
4. Nāfilah of ‘ishā’: two rak‘ah to be performed after the ‘ishā’ prayer in a sitting posture.
5. Nāfilah of fajr: two rak‘ah to be performed before the fajr prayer.
6. Nāfilah of the night (night prayer): eleven rak‘ah to be performed between the middle of the night until the fajr adhān, and it is more recommend to be performed in the last third of the night.
35. Nāfilah of Ẓuhr and ‘aṣr prayers on Fridays are twenty rak‘ah. That is, four rak‘ah are added to the ẓuhr and ‘aṣr nāfilah prayers, and it is better to perform all twenty rak‘ah before shar‘ī noon, but if it is done after shar‘ī noon until sunset, it is no problem.
36. In case a person is going to perform the nāfilahs of ẓuhr and ‘aṣr after performing the ẓuhr and ‘aṣr prayers still at the time of nāfilahs*, by obligatory caution, he should perform them merely with the intention of proximity to God, not with the intention of adā’ (in time) or qaḍa’.
* The time for ẓuhr nāfilahs begins at ẓuhr and continues until the shadow of a pole inserted in the ground increases by two-seventh of the pole height, i.e. if the pole’s height is seven hand spans, the shadow increases by two hand span. The time for ‘aṣr nāfilahs continues until the shadow of a pole inserted in the ground increases by two-seventh of the pole height.
37. The night prayer is said as follows: at first four two-rak‘ah prayers with the intention of "night prayer" are recited like morning prayers, and then two rak‘ah with the intention of shaf‘ prayer and one rak‘ah with the intention of watr prayer. In its qunūt, it is mustaḥabb to ask Allah for forgiveness, supplicate for the believers, and to ask Allah, the Almighty, for one's needs in accordance with what is mentioned in supplication books.
38. A traveler or a young person who finds it difficult to offer the night prayer on time or someone who has an excuse such as old age or illness, can offer the night prayer before midnight.
39. In the nāfilah prayers, reciting the second chapter is not obligatory; rather, it is enough to recite chapter al-Fātiḥah in each rak‘ah; Although it is mustaḥabb to recite the second chapter as well.
40. The mustaḥabb prayers (except for the watr prayer, which is one rak‘ah) are two rak‘ah and they can be recited sitting, although it is better to recite them standing, and if they are recited sitting, it is mustaḥabb to consider each two rak‘ah as one rak‘ah with the exception of the wutairah prayer (nāfilah of ‘ishā’), which should be recited, as a caution, while sitting, not in standing position.
Rulings about the Qiblah
41. Muslims should offer their prayers facing the Ka‘bah, and, thus, they call it qiblah. However, for those who are away from it, it is not possible to face it in the exact direction, so it is sufficient for them to perform it in a way that it is commonly regarded as facing the qiblah.
42. Mustaḥabb prayers can be offered while one is walking or riding, and in such conditions, it is not necessary to face qiblah.
43. The caution prayer, as well as forgotten tashahhud/sajdah should be performed facing qiblah, and in case of sajdah of inadvertence, the mustaḥabb caution is to face the qiblah.
44. A person who wants to offer prayer has to become certain and confident about the direction of qiblah, whether through a reliable compass, through the sun* and stars (for those who know how to use them), or through other ways; and if he cannot acquire confidence, he should offer the prayer in whichever direction he considers more likely, like when you guess qiblah from a masjid's miḥrāb.
* It is said that on May 7 and July 16 in Mecca at ẓuhr the sun shines vertically. Therfore, if at this time you insert a pole in the ground in your city vertically, the shadow will be in the oppsite direction of qiblah. If you become confidence that this methods shows qiblah, you can act accordingly.
45. A person who does not have any means to find out the direction of qiblah nor gives more probability to any direction should perform the prayer in four directions, by obligatory caution. But if there is not enough time to perform the prayer in four directions, he should perform the prayer in the maximum possible number of directions.
46. If, despite researching on the direction of qiblah, one makes a mistake, if the deviation from the qiblah is less than the right or left side of the qiblah (i.e. less than about 90 degrees), his prayer is valid. If he notices this mistake during the prayer, he should perform the rest of the prayer to the qiblah and it does not matter whether there is enough time or not.
47. A person who is not sure about the direction of qiblah should consider the most probable direction in his view as qiblah for performing actions other than prayer, which should be done facing the qiblah, such as slaughtering an animal. If he deems none of the possibilities for any direction any higher, he can perform that action facing any direction.
Rulings on masjids
115. It is forbidden to make the floor, roof, ceiling, and walls of a masjid najis, and if a masjid becomes najis, it is obligatory to purify it immediately.
116. Purifying a masjid is a kifā’ī obligation and it is not obligatory only for the person who has made it najis or caused it to be najis. Rather, it is obligatory for all people who can purify the masjid.
A kifā’ī obligation, which is opposite to an‘īnī obligation, is an obligation to be performed by a person, such as purifying the mosque and giving ghusl to a corpse and burying it. In the beginning, everyone is obligated to do it but it suffices to be performed by one of them. If nobody does it, everyone will be guilty. An‘īnī obligation is an obligation that all mukallafs must perform, such as daily prayers, khums and zakat.
117. It is forbidden to make the shrine of an infallible Imam (peace be upon them) najis, and if it becomes najis, it is obligatory to purify it if it is considered disrespectful to remain najis. Otherwise, it is good to purify it.
118. Adorning a masjid with gold is forbidden if considered an act of extravagance. Otherwise, it is makrūh.
119. It is obligatory to show appropriate respect for the status and position of a masjid, and any practice incompatible with its standing and prestige should be avoided.
120. There is no problem with activities such as holding educational classes if they do not conflict with the dignity of the masjid nor cause any disturbance to congregational prayers and worshipers.
121. It is not permissible to demolish a mosque or a part of it except for an inevitable reason which cannot be ignored.
122. One cannot perform for sure that it is ḥarām to make a masjid najis if it is usurped, demolished and replaced by another building, or abandoned so that there is no sign that it is a masjid without any hope for its reconstruction. Yet, it is mustaḥabb caution not to make it najis.
123. If they demolish a part of a masjid due to an emergency as it is located in the construction plan of the municipality to make a street and there is no possibility of its return to its original state, the shar‘ī rules of a masjid are not applied to it.
124. It is not permissible to build a museum or a library in a corner of a masjid's yard if it is against the terms of endowment of the masjid’s hall or yard, or results in a change in the masjid’s building.
125. If a movable and non-fixed place such as a vehicle is made waqf as a masjid, then by obligatory caution it is called a shar‘ī masjid and the rules of masjid apply to it.
126. The following actions are mustaḥabb to be performed for a masjid:
1. To clean and develop the masjid.
2. To apply perfume and wear neat clothes when going to the masjid.
3. To verify that there is no pollution or najis object on the soles of the shoes or the feet.
4. To enter the masjid earlier than others and exit after they have departed.
5. To have a humble heart and a tongue remembering God, upon entering and exiting the masjid.
6. It is mustaḥabb that when a person enters a masjid, he offers a two-rak‘ah prayer with the intention of venerating the masjid. Of course, it suffices to perform another obligatory or mustaḥabb prayer.
127. Sleeping in a masjid is makrūh.
128. The rulings for a masjid do not apply to takiyahs and ḥusayniyyahs.
Adhān and Iqāmah
129. Reciting the adhān and iqāmah before the daily prayers is mustaḥabb. This recommendation is emphasized about the fajr and maghrib prayers, especially when they are performed in congregation, but reciting adhān and iqāmah is not prescribed for other obligatory prayers, such as the āyāt prayer.
130. The adhān consists of eighteen phrases, as follows:
1. Allāhu akbar, four times (“God is greater than any description”).
2. Ashhadu allā ilāha illallāh, two times (“I testify that there is no god but Allah”).
3. Ashhadu anna Muḥammadan rasūlullāh, two times (“I testify that Muhammad is Allah’s Messenger”).
4. Ḥayya ‘alaṣ ṣalāh, two times (“Hasten to prayer”).
5. Ḥayya ‘alal falāḥ, two times (“Hasten to ultimate happiness”).
6. Ḥayya ‘alā khayril ‘amal, two times (“Hasten to the best of acts”).
7. Allāhu akbar, two times (“God is greater than any description”).
8. Lā ilāha illallāh, two times (“There is no god but Allah”).
As for the iqāmah, it consists of seventeen phrases, like the adhān, except that in the iqāmah, Allāhu akbar is reduced in the beginning to twice, and at the end to once; and after hayya ‘alā khayril ‘amal, qad qāmatiṣ ṣalāh (“the prayer is established”) must be pronounced twice.
131. Saying “ashhadu anna ‘Aliyyan waliyyullāh” (“I testify that Ali is the Friend of God”) in the adhān and iqāmah with the intention of it being a symbol for the Shi‘a is good and important, and it should be said only with the intention of closeness to Allah, but it is not a part of the adhān and iqāmah.
132. Reciting the adhān (which announces the beginning of the time for prayer) at the beginning of the times for the daily obligatory prayers and its repetition by the listeners in loud voice are among the highly mustaḥabb actions.
133. There is no problem in broadcasting the adhān in the usual way by means of a loudspeaker to announce beginning of time of prayer. But there is no religious justification for, and even there is a problem in, broadcasting verses of the Holy Qur’an, supplications, or the like using loudspeakers if it annoys the neighbors.
134. If they have said adhān and iqāmah for congregational prayer, a person who prays with that congregation should not say adhān and iqāmah for his/her own prayer.
135. It is mustaḥabb for a person to stand facing qiblah while saying adhān and to be in state wuḍū’ or ghusl and put the hands next to the ears, raise and elongate the voice, leave a little gap between the sentences of adhān, and not to talk among them.
136. It is mustaḥabb that the body should be relaxed while saying iqāmah, and say it more quiet than adhān, and do not join its sentences together. But one should not leave as much gap among the sentences of iqāmah as one does among the sentences of adhān.
137. It is mustaḥabb to sit between adhān and iqāmah for a while, to prostrate, to say tasbīḥ, to be quiet for a while, to talk, or to say a two-rak‘ah prayer..
306. In all obligatory and mustaḥabb prayers, it is mustaḥabb to raise the hands and recite supplication in the second rak‘ah, after recitation of chapter al-Fātiḥah and the second chapter but before rukū‘. This action is called qunūt.
307. In Friday prayer, qunūt is performed in the first rak‘ah before rukū‘ and in the second rak‘ah after rukū‘.
308. In the prayers of ‘Īd of Fiṭr and ‘Īd of Aḍḥā, in the first rak‘ah, qunūt is performed five times and in the second rak‘ah, it is performed four times.
309. In qunūt, any dhikr, supplication or verse of the Qur’an can be recited. One can suffice with reciting one salāwāt, subḥānallāh, bismillāh, or bismillāhir raḥmānir raḥīm; but it is better to recite the supplications which are mentioned in the Holy Qur’an, such as
رَبَّنَا آتِنَا فِی الدُّنْیَا حَسَنَةً وَفِی الآخِرَةِ حَسَنَةً وَقِنَا عَذَابَ النَّارِ
or dhikr transmitted from Imams (a) such as
لا اِلَهَ اِلاّ اللهُ الحَلِیمُ الکَرِیمُ، لا اِلهَ اِلاّ اللهُ العَلِیُّ العَظِیمُ، سُبْحَانَ اللهِ رَبِّ السَّمَاوَاتِ السَّبْعِ وَ رَبِّ الْاَرَضِینَ السَّبْعِ وَ مَا فِیهِنَّ وَ مَا بَیْنَهُنَّ وَ رَبِّ الْعَرْشِ العَظِیمِ وَ الْحَمْدُ لِلهِ رَبِّ العَالَمینَ
310. It is permissible to supplicate, ask Allah for forgiveness, and ask for needs in Farsi or any other language in qunūt.
311. It is mustaḥabb to recite the qunūt aloud, but in the congregational prayer, if Imam of congregation hears the voice of ma‘mūm, it is not mustaḥabb.
Prayer’s Ta‘qīb (Mustaḥabb Supplications/Dhikr Recited after Prayers)
312. After finishing the prayer, it is mustaḥabb to recite Qur'an, dhikr, or supplications. This act is called prayer’s ta‘qīb and it is better to do it while sitting facing the qiblah and being in the state of wuḍū’, ghusl, or tayammum.
313. It is not necessary to say the ta‘qīb of prayer in Arabic. Yet, it is better to read supplications and dhikr which are transmitted from the Imams (a.). Among the best of them is a dhikr known as Tasbīḥ of Fatimah (a.) as follows: Allāhu Akbar 34 times, alḥamdulillāh 33 times, subḥānallāh 33 times. In the books on supplication, some ta‘qībs in beautiful phrases conveying great messages are transmitted from the Imams (a.).
314. After prayer, it is mustaḥabb to perform a sajdah of thankfulness, which is to place one’s forehead on the ground to express thankfulness for all divine blessings and the God-given opportunity for prayer, and it is better to say shukran lillāh three times or more.
Translation of the Prayer
315. It is good for a person who is praying to say the words and dhikr of the prayer while attending to their meaning with humility and presence of the heart in order to benefit from the opportunity of prayer for purification of the soul and bringing the heart close to the Great and the Merciful God.
316. Translation of chapter al-Fātiḥah is as follows:
بِسمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحمٰنِ الرَّحیمِ
In the Name of God, whose unrestricted mercy and grace embrace all humans in the world, and whose eternal mercy and forgiveness belong specifically to believers.
الحمدلله رب العالمین
Praise and worship belong to God, the Lord of all the worlds.
He whose giving in the world includes all humans, and whose eternal forgiveness and blessings are specific to believers.
مالک یوم الدین
He Who is the Owner and Master of the Day of Retribution (Judgment).
إیاک نعبد و إیاک نستعین
You alone we serve, and to You alone do we ask for help.
إهدنا الصراط المستقیم
Guide us on the straight path,
صراط الذین أنعمت علیهم
the path of those whom You have blessed (cast into their hearts the light of Your knowledge)
غیر المغضوب علیهم و لاالضالین
— such as have not incurred Your wrath, nor are astray (meaning that after You bestowed upon them a great blessing, they did not disobey You or show ingratitude to incur Your wrath, or go astray).
317. The translation of chapter al-Tawḥīd is as follows:
بِسمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحمٰنِ الرَّحیمِ
(Its translation was mentioned above.)
قُل هُوَ اللَّهُ أَحَدٌ
Say: He is Allah, the One
Allah is in need of none [and on Whom all depend],
لَم یَلِد وَلَم یولَد
neither begat, nor was begotten,
وَلَم یَکُن لَهُ کُفُوًا أَحَدٌ
nor has He any equal.
318. Translations of the dhikr of rukū‘ and sajdah and some mustaḥabb phrases are as follows:
Glorified is God
سُبْحَانَ ربی العظیم و بحمده
Glorified is my Lord, the Almighty, and I praise Him
سُبْحَانَ ربی الأعلی و بحمده
Glorified is my Lord, the Highest, and I praise Him
سمع الله لمن حمده
May God attend to the one who praises Him.
أستغفرالله ربی و أتوب علیه
I ask God, my Lord, to forgive me, and I return to Him.
بحول الله و قوته أقوم و أقعد
With the will of God and His power, I stand and I sit.
319. Translation of the dhikr of qunūt are as follows:
رَبَّنَا آتِنَا فِی الدُّنْیَا حَسَنَةً وَفِی الآخِرَةِ حَسَنَةً
Our Lord! Give us good in this world and good in the Hereafter,
وَقِنَا عَذَابَ النَّارِ
and save us from the punishment of the Fire.
لا اِلَهَ اِلاَّ اللهُ الحَلِیمُ الکَرِیمُ
There is no god except God, the Most Forbearing, the Most Generous;
لا اِلَهَ اِلاَّ اللهُ العَلِیُّ العَظیمُ
There is no god except God, the Highest, the Greatest.
سُبْحانَ اللهِ رَبِّ السَّمَاوَاتِ السَّبْعِ
Glorified is God, the Lord of the seven skies
وَرَبِّ الاَرَضیْنَ السَّبْعِ
And the Lord of the seven earths
وَمَا فِیْهِنَّ وَ مَا بَیْنَهُنَّ
And (the Lord of) whatever is in them and between them
وَ رَبِّ الْعَرْشِ الْعَظیمِ
And the Lord of the Great Throne
وَ الْحَمْدُ للهِ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِینَ
And praise and worship belong to God, the Lord of all the worlds.
320. The translation of the four tasbīḥ is as follows:
Glory be to God,
And praise and worship belong to God;
وَ لاَ اِلهَ اِلاَّ اللهُ
There is no god except God,
وَ اللهُ اَکْبَرُ
And God is Greater.
321. The translation of tashahhud and salām is as follows:
Praise and worship belong to God.
اَشْهَدُ اَنْ لاَ اِلهَ اِلاَّ اللهُ
I testify that there is no god except God.
وَحْدَهُ لاَ شَریکَ لَهُ
He is One and has no partner.
وَ اَشْهَدُ اَنَّ مُحَمَّداً عَبْدُهُ وَ رَسُولُهُ
And I testify that Muhammad is His Servant and His Messenger.
اَللّهُمَّ صَلِّ عَلی مُحَمَّدٍ وَ آلِ مُحَمَّدٍ
O God! Send blessings to Muhammad (s) and Muhammad’s (s) Household.
وَ تَقَبَّلْ شَفاعَتَهُ وَ ارْفَعْ دَرَجَتَهُ
And accept his intercession and promote his position.
اَلسَّلامُ عَلَیْکَ اَیُّهَا النَّبِیُّ وَ رَحْمَةُ اللهِ وَ بَرَکاتُهُ Peace be upon you, O Prophet, and the mercy of God and His blessings!
اَلسَّلامُ عَلَیْنَا وَ عَلی عِبادِ اللهِ الصَّالِحینَ
Peace be upon us and upon the righteous servants of God!
اَلسَّلامُ عَلَیْکُم وَ رَحْمَةُ اللهِ وَ بَرَکاتُهُ
Peace be upon you [believers, angels] and the mercy of God and His blessings!
What Invalidates the Prayer:
322. The prayer is invalidated in the following cases:
1. When one of the conditions of prayer ceases to exist during prayer;
2. When wuḍū’ or ghusl is invalidated;
3. To turn away from the qiblah;
7. When the form of the prayer is disrupted;
8. Eating and drinking;
9. Doubts which invalidate the prayer;
10. To repeat a foundational element or to neglect it;
11. Saying āmīn after chapter al-Fātiḥah;
12. Placing one hand on the other in a certain manner which is called takattuf.
323. During prayer, if one of the conditions of prayer, which should be observed during the prayer, ceases to exist, for example, during the prayer, the praying person realizes that the place of prayer is usurped or that he does not have the obligatory covering, the prayer is void.
324. If an act which invalidates wuḍū’ or ghusl occurs during the prayer, such as going to sleep in the middle of the prayer or urine or the like is discharged from him, his prayer is invalidated.
325. If a person intentionally turns his face or his body from the qiblah so that he can see the right or left easily, his prayer is invalidated. If a person does so unintentionally, by obligatory caution, his prayer becomes invalidated. However, if a person turns his face a little to each side, his prayer is not invalidated.
326. If a person intentionally talks, even to the extent of one word, the prayer is invalidated.
327. The sounds produced by a person due to coughing, sneezing, and clearing the throat, even if they are letters, do not invalidate the prayer.
328. There is no problem in raising the voice upon reciting a word with the intention of dhikr to indicate something to someone. However, the prayer is invalidated if he says dhikr with the intention of conveying something to another person even if he intends saying dhikr as well.
329. It is not permissible to say salām to others while performing the prayer, but if a person says salām to him, he should reply him and the reply should be in a manner that the word “salām” precedes; for example, he should say “salāmun alaykum” or “assalāmu ‘alaykum”, not “‘alaykumus salām”.
330. If a person salutes a group of people by saying assalāmu alaykum jamī‘an (peace be upon all of you) and one of the people in the group is praying, he should not respond if someone else in the group replies to the greeting.
331. It is obligatory to reply to the salām of discerning children in the same way it is obligatory to respond to men and women.
332. It is obligatory to answer the salām immediately. If for any reason someone delays it to such an extent that the answer is not considered answer to the salām, then if he is praying, he should not give the answer to the salām and if he is not praying, it is not obligatory to answer it. In case of doubt regarding the delay the same rule applies. If delaying the greeting is intentional, it is a sin.
333. If a person greets a person who is in prayer with the word salām instead of salāmun ‘alaykum, if it is, in common view, considered a greeting, replying to it is obligatory; and by obligatory caution, the reply should be in the aforementioned manner.
334. Intentional loud laughter (guffawing) invalidates the prayer. But inadvertent or silent laughter does not.
335. If the face of a praying person, who cannot stop their laughter, turns red or their body trembles for the intensity of the inner laughter, their prayer is valid as long as their prayer’s form is not disrupted.
336. Intentionally weeping loudly over worldly issues invalidates the prayer. However, if it is due to fear of God, or for affairs of the Hereafter, there is no problem in it; rather, it is among the best acts.
337. Acts, which disrupt the form of prayer, such as clapping and jumping, invalidate the prayer whether one does so intentionally or inadvertently.
338. If a person slightly moves his hand, eyebrows, or eyes to inform another person of something or answers his question but it does not ruin the necessary stillness or the form of the prayers, it does not lead to invalidation of the prayer.
339. There is no problem in shutting one’s eyes during prayer (and it does not invalidate the prayer), although it is disliked to do so in states other than rukū‘.
340. Passing the hands over the face [wiping] after qunūt is makrūh, but it does not invalidate the prayer.
341. To eat or drink, whether a little or a lot, during prayer does invalidate the prayer. However, swallowing food particles left here and there in the mouth or sucking the sweet of sugar remained in the mouth does not invalidate prayer. Also, if one absentmindedly or forgetfully eats or drinks something during prayer, the latter is not invalidated provided that prayer's form is not disturbed.
342. If a praying person intentionally or unintentionally neglects or repeats a fundamental part (rukn) of prayer or intentionally neglects or repeats one of the non-fundamental obligations of prayer, his prayer is invalidated.
343. It is not permissible to say "āmīn" after reciting chapter al- Fātiḥah and it invalidates the prayer. But if it is because of taqiyyah, there is no problem. Also, putting folded-hands on one's chest while standing during prayer (putting hands together in front of the body) invalidates the prayer if it is done with the intention that it is a part of prayer. By obligatory caution, one should avoid it even without this intention.
344. It is not permissible to cut obligatory prayers without an excuse.
345. If it is not possible, without cutting the prayer, to save life or property when it is obligatory, then the prayer should be abandoned. In general, it is permissible to cut the prayer to avoid life and financial risks that are significant and important for the praying person.
Qaḍā’ of Forgotten Sajdah and Tashahhud
400. If one of the obligatory acts of prayer, which is not a rukn, is inadvertently left out, the prayer is not invalidated, and it is not necessary to make up for it; except for sajdah and by obligatory caution for tashahhud, both of which should be performed after prayer as qaḍā’.
401. If one of the two sajdah is left by mistake and he realizes it during rukū‘ of the next rak‘ah or after it, he must make up for it after the prayer.
402. If one forgets tashahhud and realizes it during rukū‘ of the next rak‘ah or after it, his prayer is not void. However, by obligatory caution, he should perform its qaḍā’ after salām of the prayer.
403. In qaḍā’ of sajdah and tashahhud that are performed after the prayer, all conditions of prayer must be fulfilled; such as purity of the body and clothes, facing the qiblah and other conditions.
404. A person who performs qaḍā’ of tashahhud after prayer does not need to say salām after the qaḍā’ of tashahhud, and a person who performs the qaḍā’ of sajdah does not need to say the qaḍā’ of tashahhud and salām after that.
405. If one of the invalidators of prayer, such as turning his face away from the qiblah, occurs in the interval between the salām of the prayer and qaḍā’ of sajdah or tashahhud, he must perform the qaḍā’ of sajdah and tashahhud, and his prayer is valid.
406. A person who has to perform missed sajdah or tashahhud, if it becomes obligatory for them to perform sajdah of inadvertence for something else as well, after prayer they must perform sajdah or tashahhud first, and then perform the sajdah of inadvertence.
627. A person, who has not performed the obligatory daily prayer at its specified time intentionally or due to forgetfulness or ignorance, or who realizes, after the prayer's time, that his prayer was invalid, must perform its qaḍā’.
628. If someone does not perform a non-daily obligatory prayer, such as āyāt prayer, in its time, he must perform its qaḍā’.
629. It is obligatory to perform qaḍā’ of a prayer in case that one is certain that it has been missed or it was invalid. But if he doubts (fifty percent or more) whether or not it was missed/invalid, it is not obligatory to perform its qaḍā’.
630. If someone is unconscious during the entire time of prayer, its qaḍā’ is not obligatory provided that he has not decided to become unconscious. Otherwise, he is to perform its qaḍā’ by obligatory caution.
631. A non-Muslim who has converted to Islam is not to make up for the prayers he did not perform before embracing Islam. But an ex-apostate, i.e. a Muslim who had become non-Muslim and then became Muslim again, must perform qaḍā’ prayers he missed during apostasy after his repentance.
632. Missed prayers, during whose whole time, a woman experiences menses or nifās, are not required to be performed later.
633. A person who owes some prayer is not obligated to perform them right away. However, negligence in performing them is not allowed.
634. A person who, due to ignorance of a shar‘ī rule or its case, performs prayer without wuḍū’, ghusl, or tayammum, like a person who did not know that he had become junub and did not take a ghusl, or said prayer with an invalid ghusl or wuḍū’, he must make up for the prayers.
635. The obligatory prayer must be performed in the same way as it was missed. Therefore, if one is obligated to perform four-rak‘ah prayers and he misses them, he must perform their qaḍā’ as four-rak‘ah prayers (even if he is on a journey now) and if he has missed four-rak‘ah prayers while on a journey (so his duty was to perform shortened prayers), he should perform them shortened, even if he is not on a trip now.
636. Qaḍā’ of the obligatory prayer can be recited at any time during the day or night, and it is not necessary to recite qaḍā’ of morning prayer at the time of morning prayer or qaḍā’ of ẓuhr prayer at the time of ẓuhr prayer.
637. The criterion in qaḍā’ prayers is end of its time. Therefore, if one is a traveler at the end of prayer's time, he should perform its qaḍā’ in shortened form although he was in his watan at the beginning of its time, and if he is not a traveler at the end of the time, he should perform complete prayers although he was a traveler at its beginning.
638. It is not obligatory to observe the order in reading the qaḍā’ prayer; except for qaḍā’ of ẓuhr and ‘aṣr prayers of one day and qaḍā’ of maghrib and ‘ishā’ prayers of one day.
639. A person who does not know the number of his qaḍā’ prayers, it suffices to settle them for the amount that he is sure he has missed.
640. A person who owes some qaḍā’ prayers can perform his adā’ prayers. But by obligatory caution if he has only one qaḍā’ prayer, he should perform this qaḍā’ prayer first; especially if it is qaḍā’ prayer of today.
641. A person who owes some qaḍā’ prayers can perform nāfilah and mustaḥabb prayers.
642. It is mustaḥabb to perform qaḍā’ of daily nāfilahs.
643. If acts of worship such as prayers or fastings have been missed by the deceased, it is permissible to hire someone to perform their qaḍā’ on behalf of the deceased. Also, it is permissible for someone to perform them for free, and by doing so, the responsibility of the deceased is discharged.
644. A prayer that is offered on behalf of a dead person for a fee is called a hire prayer.
645. If a deceased person has made a will that they hire a person for performing his prayers, up to one-third of the inheritance it should be carried out, and for more than the one-third, the permission of the heirs is required.
646. A person who has been hired to offer prayers for the deceased person does not need to identify him/her by mentioning their characteristics when praying; rather, it is sufficient if he identifies him in general terms. For example, a person who is hired for the prayer of two people, if he intends to pray for the dead person he is hired first, it is sufficient.
647. If there is no special condition for the hire prayer (such as holding it in congregation or reading it in a mosque), the hired person is only required to perform the prayer with its obligations.
648. Being of the same sex is not a condition for performing the prayers of the deceased, that is, a man can perform the prayers of a woman and a woman can perform the prayers of a man, whether it is for free or it is a hire prayer.
649. In reciting the prayer loudly or slowly, the agent must act according to his/her own duty. Therefore, if a man recites qaḍā’ prayers on behalf of a woman, he should recite chapter al-Fātiḥah and another chapter of the morning, maghrib, and ‘ishā’ prayers aloud.
650. A person who performs the prayers of a dead person on their behalf must meet the following conditions:
1. To know the rules of prayer by ijtihād or taqlīd;
2. Be assured that he performs the prayer correctly;
3. Do not have an excuse; for example, a person who performs prayer in sitting posture cannot be hired for the prayers of the dead.
Qaḍā’ Prayers for Parents
651. It is the elder son’s duty to make up in qaḍā’ for the missed prayers of his late father and, as per obligatory caution, those of his mother.
652. If a father or mother has not said any prayer, it is obligatory for the eldest son to perform the prayers according to obligatory caution.
653. The eldest son means the oldest son who is alive when his parents die, whether he is an adult or minor.
654. If the eldest child of the deceased is a girl and the second child is a boy, it is obligatory for the eldest son, i.e. the second child, to perform the prayers of the parents.
655. If someone else (other than the eldest son) performs the prayers of the parents, the eldest son’s duty is discharged.
656. It is the elder son’s duty to make up in qaḍā’ for the amount of prayers he is sure that his late father or mother* has missed. However, if he does not know as to whether they have missed any prayer or not, he is responsible for nothing nor required to investigate for that.
*Regarding the mother, it is a caution to do so.
657. It is obligatory for the eldest son to perform the missed prayers of his late parents in any way possible, and if he is unable to do so, he has no duty.
658. A person, who owes his own qaḍā’ prayer and is also in charge of qaḍā’ prayers of his parents, can perform whichever one he wants first.
659. If the eldest son dies after the death of his parents, it is not obligatory for the other children to perform the prayers of their parents.