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Rules of Fasting

  • Fasting Defenition
  • Types of Fasting
  • Conditions of Obligatory Fast
  • Ways to Establish the New Lunar Month
    • Sighting the New Moon
    • Sighting the Crescent by Two Just Witnesses
    • To Get Confident as to Sighting the Crescent
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      To Get Confident as to Sighting the Crescent

      Sighting the Crescent Declared from Radio/TV
        36.   If the crescent marking the beginning of Shawwāl is not observed in a city by the local people but the radio or television announces the beginning of Shawwāl, should the local people act upon the radio announcement, or should they ascertain by investigating whether Shawwāl has commenced?
         A: If the radio or television announcement makes them feel sure that Shawwāl has commenced, or there is a decree by the Jurist Leader announcing the beginning of Shawwāl, then there is no need for further investigation.

      To Guess Sighting of the Crescent as Said by Others
      37. If we think that tomorrow is Eid ul-Fitr as some people said so, can we fast?
        A: As long as one is not confident that tomorrow is Eid ul-Fitr and the first of Shawwāl, one should not break their fast.
       
      To Maintain Validity of Astronomical Calculations
      38. If one gets confident regarding the birth of the new moon and the fact that it can be seen with naked eye through astronomical calculations, can one rely on it in determining the first of Ramadan/ Shawwāl? Especially if it is said by the expert in the related field.
        A: The mere confidence in astronomical calculations has no effect. However, one should act upon his knowledge and confidence in the existence of the crescent which can be sighted.
       
      To Follow a Non-Islamic State in Sighting the Moon
      39. If it is permissible to follow a government announcement regarding sighting the crescent and it constitutes a scientific criterion for the new month in other regions, is it limited to an Islamic government or does it include a tyrannical government?  
        A: The criterion in this regard is being confident that the crescent is sighted in a place where it is sufficient in relation to the mukallaf.

      To Follow Sunnis in Sighting the Moon

      40.  Is it obligatory to follow Saudi Arabia in determining the tenth day of Dhi al-Hajjah? Or one may disobey their decision?
      A: Pilgrims may act according to what Sunni judge said regarding sighting the moon and establishing the crescent.
       
        Establishing the First of the Month Taking into Account the Moon Characteristic of the Next Days

      41. If on the evening of Eid ul-Fitr, the moon appears as a very fine crescent having the same characteristic of the new crescent, does it mean that the next day is the first of Shawwāl and that the Eid was declared by mistake? Is one required to perform qaḍā’ for the last day of Ramadan?  
        A: The thinness or thickness of the moon and also its size and position in the sky are not shar‘ī evidence in deciding the first or second of a month. But if it brings conviction to the mukallaf, he is obligated to act in accordance with his knowledge in this case.
       
       42. Can the night of the full moon, which is the fourteenth night of the month, be taken as a reliable basis for calculating the first day of the month so as to determine whether the Day of Doubt was the thirtieth of Ramadan and to apply its rule, for example, so that all who did not fast on that day may have evidence concerning the necessity to perform qaḍā’ for the thirtieth day of Ramadan and whoever fasted that day, considering Ramadan to continue, may know that he is free of obligation?  
        A: That which has been mentioned does not constitute shar‘ī evidence for anything mentioned. However, if it brings knowledge to the mukallaf, his obligation is to act in accordance with his knowledge.
    • The Decree of a Mujtahīd as to the First Day of the Month
  • Fasting Intention
  • Fast Invalidators
  • Medical Rules of Fasting
  • Rules for women
  • Zakat ul-Fitrah
  • Eid ul-Fitr Prayer
  • The Qaḍā’ Fast
  • Hired Fasts
  • Kaffārah of Fast
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