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    • Medical Rules
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      Medical Rules

      Artificial Genitals in Medical Education
      Artificial organs and genitals do not have the same ruling as the real ones. Therefore, there is no objection to looking at and handling them unless a questionable intent is involved or it entails arousing one’s sexual desire.

      Ḥarām Looking/Touching in Medical Education
      There is no harm in studying medicine and training in it, even by carrying out examinations which are ḥarām in themselves provided that it is essential for training in medicine and acquiring experience in treating the sick. In addition to that, the student must be confident that ability to save human life in the future depends on knowledge acquired in this way. He must also be confident that he would be in a situation whereby the sick are going to consult him to seek his advice and that he would be responsible to save their lives.

      The mere fact that medical examination is a part of the curriculum or an assignment required from the student by his professor does not justify the commission of what Islamic law has decreed unlawful. However, the criterion here is the need for the training to save the human life or the requirement of a necessity.

      To Visit a Non-maḥram Doctor
      If the treatment requires ḥarām touching or looking, it is impermissible to visit/refer to a doctor of the opposite gender if referral to the same gender is feasible.

      Cosmetic Surgery
      There is no harm in undergoing plastic surgery in itself.

      To Cover One's Nose after Cosmetic Surgery
      It is not obligatory to cover one's nose on which cosmetic surgery was performed.

      Eyebrows' Tattooing
      There is no harm in tattooing eyebrows for women. However, if it is considered as adornment, they should cover them in front of non-maḥrams.

      Contraceptive Methods
      By itself, using a contraceptive method is not objected. Regarding women, it has to be done with the husband's consent, but ḥarām touching and looking should be avoided.

      To Sterilize a Woman
      It is permissible to sterilize a woman, who is afraid of pregnancy as being dangerous to her. Indeed, it is not permissible for her to get pregnant intentionally if pregnancy poses any danger to her life.
      There is no objection to sterilizing a woman if it does not pose any considerable harm, is done with the permission of the husband and it is done for a sensible reason, e.g. she is prone to bearing deformed or diseased children.

      To Have a Vasectomy
      There is no objection to carrying out a vasectomy on a man in itself provided that it is done for a sensible reason and that it does not lead to considerable harm.

      Abortion
      Aborting the fetus is ḥarām by Islamic law. It is not permissible at any count, barring pregnancy which poses danger to the mother’s life. In this case, there is no objection to terminating the pregnancy before the soul has entered the fetus. Should the spirit enter the fetus, it is not permissible to abort it, even if the pregnancy spells danger to the mother’s life, except in the event where carrying on with the pregnancy could prove fatal to both the fetus and the mother, and there is no way to save the baby’s life but it is possible to save the mother’s life through abortion.

      To Abort a Fetus Affected with a Dangerous Disease
      Should the diagnosis of dangerous disease in the fetus be definite and if having such a baby and maintaining him/her entails great difficulty and hardship, it is, in this case, permissible to abort the fetus before the soul enters its body. However, it is an obligatory caution to pay its blood money.

      To Dissect a Corpse
      There is no objection to dissecting a corpse when saving a respectful life, exploring new ideas in medical science that are necessary for the society, or obtaining information regarding a disease that threatens life. However, it is obligatory not to make use of the dead body of a Muslim, where possible.
      Extracted parts of the dead body of a Muslim must be buried with the same body unless burying them with the body proves difficult or unbearable. In this case, it is permissible to bury them separately or alongside another dead body.

      IVF
      There is no objection to carrying out IVF in itself. However, it is obligatory to keep away from any preliminary step that might involve committing a ḥarām act like prohibited looking and touching. The child born belongs to the couple from whom the sperm and the egg were taken.

      In itself there is no legal impediment to inseminating a woman with the sperm of a non-maḥram man. However, it is obligatory to avoid the preliminary steps which are ḥarām, such as looking and touching. However, the born child in this way does not belong to the husband of the woman, rather to the person who donated the sperm and the woman whose egg and womb were used in the process.

      If an egg fertilized with the sperm of a non-maḥram man is placed within the womb of another woman, the child belongs to the man and woman whose sperm and egg were used. It is not considered as the child of the second woman and her husband and does not receive inheritance from them. As to being maḥram or non-maḥram, they should observe caution unless she breastfeeds it considering its conditions which makes them maḥram to each other.

      It is permissible for a man whose wife does not introduce egg, to fertilize an egg — donated by another woman — in a tube by his sperm and implant it in his wife’s womb provided that the preliminary ḥarām steps are avoided. The born child belongs to the genetic parents. There is a problem in referring the baby to the mother who became pregnant with it. Therefore, they should observe caution insofar as the shar‘ī rules governing lineage are concerned.

      To Transplant an Animal Body Part into Human Body 
      There is no objection to transplanting a body part of an animal into the body of a man. However, praying with it is problematic unless it is a living body part which continues its life within the human's body and become a part of it or they use a part of a ḥalāl animal which is slaughtered according to Islam. 

      To Sell Blood
      There is no objection to selling blood for a rational and shar‘ī purpose.

      To Sell a Body Part
      There is no objection to selling a body part whose removal does not cause considerable harm especially if saving a respectful life depends on it.

      Treatment by Ḥarām
      There is no objection to consuming ḥarām things if it is necessary for treatment as said by a trustworthy skilled doctor.

      Treatment by Wine
      It is permissible to treat a disease using wine or other alcoholic beverages only as much as necessary if one is sure that it can be treated, there is no other option and not treating it leads to death or something similair.

      To Masturbate for Medical Treatment
      There is no objection to masturbation if it is intended for medical treatment, the treatment depends on it, and it is not possible for his wife to do it. However, it is not permissible to masturbate in order to determine fertility, unless it is necessary.
    • Miscellaneous
    • Rules of Eating & Drinking
    • Rules of Endowment and Ḥabs
    • Rules of Nadhr, Promise and Swear
    • Will and Funerals
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