Sameness of Horizon and Its Criterion
Q1. Is the sameness of horizon considered to be a condition in regards to observing the crescent?
A: Yes, it is.
Q2. What is the sameness of horizon and which places are of the same horizon?
A: It means two cities/places are the same regarding how possible it is to sight the new moon in them.
To Follow a Non-Islamic State in Sighting the Moon
Q3. If it is permissible to follow a government announcement regarding sighting the crescent and it constitutes a scientific criterion for the new month in other regions, is it limited to an Islamic government or does it include a tyrannical government?
A: The criterion in this regard is being confident that the crescent is sighted in a place where it is sufficient in relation to the mukallaf.
To Guess Sighting of the Crescent as Said by Others
Q4. If we think that tomorrow is Eid ul-Fitr as some people said so, can we fast?
A: As long as one is not confident that tomorrow is Eid ul-Fitr and the first of Shawwāl, one should not break their fast.
Time of Putting Zakat ul-Fitrah aside
Q5. When should one put zakat ul-fitrah aside?
A: One may put zakat ul-fitrah aside when the moon of the month of Shawwāl is sighted. For a person who offers Eid ul-Fitr prayer, it is an obligatory caution to pay or put aside zakat ul-fitrah before Eid prayer. However, if one does not offer the prayer, they may delay fitrah payment until ‘noon’.
Zakat ul-Fitrah of the Guests
Q6. If the guest pays his own zakat ul-fitrah, does that release the host from this obligation?
A: In a case that guest is considered the host's dependent, if they pay their own zakat ul-fitrah on the behalf of the host and by his permission, the host is released from paying it.
Paying Zakat ul-Fitrah before the Month of Ramadan
Q7. Is it allowed to pay zakat ul-fitrah to the needy person before the month of Ramadan?
A: No, that is invalid. However, one may give him the amount as a loan and on Eid day consider it as zakat ul-fitrah.
Wife's and Children's Duty if One Does not Pay Zakat ul-Fitrah
Q8. What is the duty of one's wife and children if he does not pay zakat ul-fitrah?
A: They have no duty. They are not required to pay zakat ul-fitrah.
Sending Zakat ul-Fitrah to Another City
Q9. May we pay zakat ul-fitrah at another city?
A: Unless there is no any deserving person in one's city, they may send their zakat ul-fitrah to another city.
To Forget Paying Zakat ul-Fitrah
Q10. We forgot to pay zakat ul-fitrah. What should we do?
A: If you have divided zakat ul-fitrah, you have to pay it. If you do have not, you should put it aside and pay it without intending being adā’ or qaḍā’.
How to Pay Zakat ul-Fitrah
Q11. Can one pay zakat ul-fitrah to the family of a non-religious needy person?
A: `Adālah (justice) of the zakat ul-fitrah receiver is not conditional. However, according to caution, one should not pay it to a person who openly commits major sins.
Eid ul-Fitr Prayer in the Time of Occultation of the 12th Imam (a.s.)
Q12. What kind of obligatory duties are the two Eid prayers and Friday prayer in your opinion?
A: The two Eid (Fitr and Adha prayers are not obligatory, rather they are mustaḥabb in the present time but the Friday prayer is an optional (takhyīrī) obligation.
Leading Eid Prayer by Congregational Imams of Mosques
Q13. In the past, every imam of congregational prayers used to perform Eid ul-Fitr prayers in his mosque. Is it permissible for imams of the mosques in the current time to hold the two Eid prayers?
A: At the time being, it is permissible for the representatives of the Jurist Leader — who are permitted by him to hold Eid prayers — and also for the Friday prayer imams, who have been appointed by him, to hold Eid prayers in congregation. As for any other individual, it is based on caution to perform them individually. It is no problem if they perform the two prayers in congregation as something hopefully — raja —. If it is deemed necessary/beneficial that only one Eid prayer be held in a city, it is preferable not to be led by anyone other than the Imam of Friday prayer appointed by the Jurist Leader.
Making up for Eid Prayer in Qaḍā’
Q14. Is there any qaḍā’ for Eid ul-Fitr prayer?
A: It does not have any qaḍā’.