Can a worshipper who wants to perform a certainly missed prayer or an obligatory diurnal prayer of the same day as part of a congregation be connected to the congregational leader (imām al-jamāʻah) or the other congregants through a worshipper who is performing a probably missed prayer?
Q.| If one has failed to fast during the month of Ramadan without a legitimate reason and is now financially incapable of providing food to 60 needy persons for every day one failed to fast or to alternatively observe 60 days of punitive fasting, what is one’s obligation?
If someone is told by his physician that he should not fast, but partially disregarding his physician’s instructions, he fasts every other day, is he obligated to observe compensational fasting for those days he heeded his physician’s instruction and did not fast?
If a congregational leader, or imam, is performing a compensational prayer, can we join him in prayer, given that it is possible that he may be performing a potential compensational prayer, not a definitive one?
Believers who are incapable of performing the prostrations of the canonic prayers in their normal form (e.g. due to old age or physical impairment) typically sit on a chair and perform their prostrations by placing their heads on a table in front of them. First of all, does this count as a valid prostration? Second, how should they position the seven body parts integral to the validity of a proper prostration?
Q.| If someone misses several days of fasting during the month of Ramadan due to traveling, does he need to pay a financial penalty (kaffārah) in addition to the days of compensational fasting that he has to observe?
Say, someone travels from his hometown to another town, and the distance from his hometown to the outermost limits of the town that is his destination does not meet the canonically specified travel limit (masāfat sharʻī , but the distance to the particular point within the town that is his final destination does.