If a transaction is an on-credit purchase (nasīʼah), is the seller allowed to stipulate a penalty clause as a provision within the same contract or as part of a distinct binding contract (al-ʻaqd al-khārij al-lāzim), making the buyer liable for a specified fee if he fails to pay the price at the designated time? Is such a provision valid and binding?
I have started an interest-free lending group managed by myself from my home. For someone to become a member eligible for receiving a loan, he or she is required to pay a certain amount as a deposit and a membership fee. By accumulating these deposits, I am able to give loans to the members by turns. So, I have two questions. First, is it permissible to receive a membership fee (which is a fixed amount) from the members?
I have tattoos from prior to my conversion to Islam and have recently discovered that most tattoo inks include animal products such as bone char, glycerin from animal fat, gelatin and even parts of insects. Does the presence of this ink under my skin make my prayers invalid?
If a person fears that their prayer is going to be qaḍā’ soon so they skip the second surah in the first and second rak‘at to shorten their prayer. Later they find that they had enough time to recite the second surah. Do they have to repeat the prayer?