Hajj Merits & SIGNIFICANCE
Hajj is one of the most integral pillars of Islam upon which Islam has been established. Imam Baqir (as) says "Islam has been established on the following five elements: prayer, zakāt, fast, hajj and wilāyah".
Hajj is of two kind; obligatory and mustaḥabb, it holds immense virtue and abundant reward. Many traditions have been narrated from the Holy Prophet S.A.W. and the purified Ahl ul-Bayt as. on the merits of hajj. Imam Sadiq (Peace be upon Him) says: "Those who performHajj and ‘umrah form the delegation of Allah; if they beg Him, He will grant them; if they call upon Him, He will answer them; if they want to intercede for others, He will accept it; and if they keep quiet, He will speak on their behalf, and they will be compensated with a reward of one million dirhams for the expense of one dirham".
 Al Kafi, vol. 2 p. 18, H. 1 ; Wasaeil Ashia, vol. 1 p. 7, chapter. 1 H. 1
 Al Kafi, vol. 4, p. 255, H. 14
CAN HAJJ BE ABANDONED?
Issue 1: In the light of many verses and hadiths, a person who has qualified for Hajj and is well aware that hajj is obligatory upon him and yet does not perform it has committed a major sin.
Allah Almighty in the Holy Qur'an says:
وَلِلّهِ عَلَي النَّاسِ حِجُّ الْبَيْتِ مَنِ اسْتَطَاعَ إِلَيْهِ سَبِيلاً وَمَن كَفَرَ فَإِنَّ الله غَنِي عَنِ الْعَالَمِينَ
"Pilgrimage to the House is a duty imposed upon mankind by God for everyone who can afford a way to it. Anyone who disbelieves will find that God is Transcendent beyond any need of the Universe".
It is narrated from Imam Sadiq (as):
"If a person dies and does not perform Hajj while there was no pressing need, severe illness or any cruel ruler which may prevent him from performing it, he will die as a Jew or a Christian".
Sura Alay Imran, verse. 97
 Tahzib Al Ahkam, vol. 5, p. 17
Types of Hajj and ‘umrah
Issue 2:The hajj is basically of two types: hajj on behalf and hajj for oneself. Hajj on behalf is the hajj performed on behalf of another person, whereas hajj for oneself is hajj accomplished for oneself. Hajj for oneself is further classified into two forms: obligatory hajj and recommended hajj.
Issue 3: The obligatory hajj becomes an obligation in itself according to the Islamic law, or it becomes obligatory because of nadhr or invalidation of previous hajj.
Issue 4: For every kind of hajj, that is,ḥajjat ul-Islam and hajj on behalf — there are rulings and conditions, which will be mentioned in the first part in two chapters.
Issue 5: Obligatory hajj is further classified into three forms: tamattu‘, ifrād and qirān.
Hajj tamattu‘ is obligatory for a person whose homeland is located at a distance more than 90 km from the holy city of Mecca.
Hajj ifrād and hajjqirān are obligatory for people who reside within the holy city of Mecca or those who are settled at a distance less than the aforementioned one.
Hajj tamattu‘ differs from hajj ifrād and hajjqirān with regard to rituals.
Issue 6: The basic feature that distinguishes hajjtamattu‘ from hajj ifrādand hajj qirān is ‘umrah.Hajj tamattu‘ comprises two parts: ‘umrah and hajj. It starts with ‘umrah. A gap exists between ‘umrah and hajj during which the pilgrim comes out of iḥrām state and is allowed to tamattu‘(literally enjoy) things which are prohibited for a muḥrim (a person who is in state of iḥrām). Both ‘umrah tamattu‘ and hajj tamattu‘ should be performed in the same year.
Hajj ifrād and qirān comprise only hajj rituals, and ‘umrah in these cases is considered an independent worship termed as ‘umrah mufradah. So, a person may perform ‘umrah mufradah in one year and hajj ifrād/qirān in another year.
Issue 7: ‘Umrah tamattu‘ and ‘umrah mufradah have common rites that would be mentioned in the second section and their differences will be mentioned in issue 16.
Issue 8: Similar to hajj, ‘umrah is sometimes obligatory and other times it is mustaḥabb.
Issue 9: In Islamic jurisprudential rulings, ‘umrah is obligatory once in life. If a person fulfills the required conditions of ‘umrah, he should perform it. Like hajj, it is obligatory for those who are mustaṭī‘ to perform ‘umrahas soon as possible. For those who reside in Mecca or its vicinity (not further than ninty km from Mecca), being mustaṭī‘ for hajj is separable from being mustaṭī‘ for ‘umrah. Therefore, if a person is mustaṭī‘only for one of them, he should perform it as soon as possible.
It is noteworthy to mention here that this rule is specific only for those who live in the holy city of Mecca or reside at a distance of less than ninty kilometers from the holy city of Mecca. With regard to the people living far from Mecca and their duty is to perform hajj tamattu‘, ability and qualification for hajj and ‘umrahis not separate from each other because hajjtamattu‘ includes ‘umrah of tamattu‘ and hajj and both of them should be performed in the same year.
Issue 10:It is not lawful for a person intending to perform hajj or ‘umrah to enter the Holy City of Mecca without iḥrām. And if he wants to enter in the Holy city of Mecca in days other than hajj season, it is obligatory for him to enter the Holy City with iḥrām of ‘umrah mufradah. However, the following two groups are exempted from this commandment:
1.Those who frequently visit the holy city of Mecca for job/occupational purposes.
2.Those who have exited the Holy city of Mecca after performing the rites and acts of hajj/‘umrah and want to re-enter the holy city of Mecca during the same [lunar] month.
Issue 11: The repetition of ‘umrah is recommended similar to repetition of hajj and there lies no particular gap limit between two ‘umrahs. But, on cautionary terms one can perform only one ‘umrah for himself within a month. If he performs two ‘umrahs on behalf of others or he performs one‘umrah for himself and the second for another person, this caution is not necessary. Therefore, if he performs the second ‘umrah on behalf of another person, it is permissible for him to receive the wages of performing ‘umrahand ‘umrah mufradah will be sufficient for the performer whether it is obligatory or not.
General Structure of hajj tamattu‘ and its ‘umrah
Issue 12: Hajj tamattu‘ includes two acts: ‘umrahtamattu‘ and hajj tamattu‘.‘Umrah tamattu‘ is prior to hajj tamattu‘ and both these acts have specific deeds which are discussed below.
Issue 13: The deeds of ‘umrah tamattu‘:
1.Wearing iḥrām (hajj dress) from a mīqāt;
2.Ṭawāf around the Holy Ka‘bah;
3.Prayer of ṭawāf ;
4.sa‘y (to walk) between the mountains of Safā and Marvah;
5.Taqsīr (cutting a small quantity of hair or nail)
Issue 14: The deeds of hajjtamattu‘ are mentioned below:
1.Iḥrām (wearing dress of hajj) in the holy city of Mecca;
2.Wuqūf(staying) in ‘Arafāt from the noon of the ninth of Dhul-Ḥijjah to sunset;
3.Wuqūf (staying) in Mash‘ar ul-Ḥarām on the night before the tenth of Dhul-Ḥijjah to sunrise;
4.Stoning at Jamarah ‘Aqabah on the day of Eid ul-Adha (the tenth of Dhul-Ḥijjah);
6.Shaving head or taqsīr (cutting a small quantity of hair or nail);
7.Ṭawāf around the Holy Ka‘bah;
8.Prayer of ṭawāf ;
9.sa‘y (to walk) between the mountains of Safā and Marvah;
10.Ṭawāf of nisā’ (women);
11.Prayer of ṭawāfof nisā’;
12.To stay awake during the night before the eleventh in Minā;
13.Stoning three jamarahs on the eleventh of Dhul-Ḥijjah;
14.To stay awake during the night before the twelfth in Minā;
15.Stoning three jamarahs on the twelfth of Dhul-Ḥijjah.
hajj ifrād’ and ‘umrah mufradah
Issue 15: Hajj ifrād and hajj tamattu‘ are similar in terms of rituals and acts of worship except for one major difference of animal slaughtering. It is mandatory in hajj tamattu‘ whereas it is a recommended act in hajjifrād.
Issue 16: ‘Umrah mufradah is similar to ‘umrahtamattu‘ except for the following differences:
1.The rituals of ‘umrah tamattu‘ comprise taqsīr as obligatory act; whereas in ‘umrah mufradah, it is optional for the men, i.e. either he can have his head shaved or perform taqsīr. The rulings for the women are that they should perform taqsīr in both ‘umrahmufradah and ‘umrah tamattu‘.
2.In ‘umrah tamattu, ṭawāf of nisā’ and its prayer are not obligatory. However on the basis of caution, one should perform both of them before taqsīr with the intention of rajā’ (hope of being desired in shar‘). In ‘umrah mufradah, ṭawāf ofnisā’ and its prayer are obligatory.
3.‘Umrah tamattu‘should be performed during the months of hajj: Shawwāl, Zilqa‘dah or Dhul-Ḥijjah; whereas ‘umrah mufradahcan be performed any time during the year.
4.There are five mīqāts (the place where the dress for hajj or ‘umrah is worn) for ‘umrahtamattu‘. Mīqāt for ‘umrah mufradah varies with distance from Mecca. People residing in Mecca have adanā al-ḥillas mīqāt whereas people living out of Mecca are obliged to wear iḥrāmfrom one of the five mīqāts nearest to them.
Issue 17: Hajj qirān differs from hajj ifrād mainly in two aspects: animal slaughtering and becoming muḥrīm. During hajjqirān, the animal for slaughtering should accompany the person wearing iḥrām, thereby animal slaughtering is obligatory for him.
Likewise, in the hajj qirān, iḥrāmis carried out by saying Labbayk (specific slogan of hajj) or by ish‘ār or taqlīd(their meanings will be mentioned in issue 140) but in hajj ifrād, iḥrām is materialized only by saying Labbayk.
General Rules for hajj tamattu‘
Issue 18: For the hajj tamattu‘ to be valid, there are certain conditions be fulfilled. They are as follows:
1)Intention, i.e. from the time of wearing iḥrām for ‘umrah oftamattu‘, he should intend to perform hajj tamattu‘; otherwise, his hajj is not in order;
2)Both ‘umrah and hajj need to be performed in the months of hajj;
3)Both ‘umrah and hajj need to be performed in the same year;
4)‘Umrah and hajj should be performed for one person and by one person. This implies that a person who is performing hajj on the behalf of a dead person needs to perform both ‘umrah and hajj himself. Hiring two individuals to carry out the ‘umrah and hajj separately is not permitted.
Issue 19: A person, whose duty is to perform hajj tamattu‘, cannot change it on purpose and by choice to perform hajjifrād or qirān.
Issue 20: A person, whose duty is to perform hajj tamattu‘ but knows that the time is too short to complete ‘umrah and join hajj, should change his intention from hajj tamattu‘to hajj ifrād and after completing the rites of hajj, he should perform ‘umrah mufradah.
Issue 21: A woman, who wants to perform hajj tamattu‘ but is menstruating at the point of mīqāt, should wear iḥrām for ‘umrah tamattu‘ at mīqāt if she thinks she may be purified some time before hajj tamattu‘ and will have enough time to take ghusl, perform all the deeds of ‘umrah tamattu‘, wear iḥrām for hajj tamattu‘, and reach ‘Arafāt by 'noon' on the day of ‘Arafa.
Then, if she becomes clean from menstruation and she has sufficient time for performing deeds of ‘umrah and is able to reach ‘Arafāt by 'noon' on the day of ‘Arafa, she should do so. In case, she does not become clean or does not have sufficient time to perform the ‘umrah rituals and reach ‘Arafāt on time, she should change his intention from ‘umrah tamattu‘ to hajj ifrād, with the same iḥrāmand then perform ‘umrah mufradah; this will compensate for hajj tamattu‘.
If she is sure she will not become clean before the time for iḥrām of hajj and going to ‘Arafāt on time or she will not have time to perform ‘umrahtamattu‘ rituals before going to ‘Arafāt on time, she should enter iḥrāmin mīqāt intending performing what is her real duty or iḥrām of hajj ifrād. After performing hajj ifrād rituals, she perform ‘umrah mufradah and what she has done replaces hajj tamattu‘.
However, if a woman is clean in mīqāt but begins to menstruate on the way to Mecca in state of iḥrām or before performing ṭawāf of ‘umrahand its prayer or during the course of ṭawāf before completion of fourth round and is certain that she cannot be clean to perform ‘umrahdeeds and reach ‘Arafāt by 'noon' on the ninth of Dhul-Ḥijjah, she has two choices:
a)She can change her intention from ‘umrah tamattu‘ to hajj ifrād and once hajj ifrād is done she should perform ‘umrah mufradah. These acts replace hajj tamattu‘.
b)She postpones ṭawāf of ‘umrah and its prayer and by performing sa‘y and taqsīr she exits iḥrām of ‘umrah. Then she should wear iḥrām of hajj, go and stay (wuqūf) in ‘Arafāt and Mash‘ar, and perform deeds in Minā and after returning to the Holy city of Mecca, she should perform ṭawāf of tamattu‘and its prayer as qaḍā’ — before performing ṭawāf of hajj and its prayer and sa‘yor after performing them. This act is a compensation for hajj tamattu‘ and nothing more is obligatory for her.
If she begins to menstruate after completing her fourth round of ṭawāf, she should leave remaining rounds of ṭawāf and its prayer, perform sa‘yand taqsīr and come out of iḥrām of ‘umrah. After this, she can stay in wuqūfs and perform rites in Minā, and upon return to Mecca, and after performing ṭawāf and its prayer and sa‘y or before performing all these rites, she should perform ṭawāf of ‘umrahand its prayer. This act is a compensation for her hajjtamattu‘ and nothing more is obligatory upon her.
Issue 22: The details of rites and commandments of hajj will be mentioned in part three and in several chapters.
 In order to know how she is to perform them, you may see issue 286.
Issues related to Mīqāts
Issue 112: If one has no knowledge about the location of mīqāt or it’s parallel, it can be determined by shar‘ī evidence i.e. by the testimony of two just witnesses or public knowledge regarding that place which makes one confident about it. It is not obligatory to investigate to become sure. If one is not sure and there is no testimony of two just witnesses or public knowledge, one should act upon his guess (more than 50%) obtained by asking people with sound knowledge of that locality.
Issue113: Wearing iḥrām before reaching mīqāt is invalid. However, if a person does nadhr of wearing iḥrām before the place of mīqāt, the rule is different. For example, if a person doesnadhr that he will wear iḥrām from the Holy city of Medina or from his own city, he should wear iḥrām from this very place and his wearing iḥrām will be valid.
Issue 114: If a person passes the mīqāt without wearing iḥrām on purpose or due to ignorance or negligence, he should return to the place of mīqātand wear iḥrām from there.
Issue 115: If a person passes the mīqāt without wearing iḥrām due to negligence, forgetfulness or ignorance of the ruling, and he cannot return to the place of mīqāt due to shortage of time or another excuse while he has not entered the Ḥaram, on the basis of obligatory caution, he should go back towards mīqāt as much as possible and wear iḥrām from there. If he has entered the Ḥaram, he should exit the Ḥaram. In case, he cannot exit Ḥaram due to shortage of time or the like, he should wear iḥrām inside the Ḥaram where the excused (negligence, forgetfulness or ignorance of the ruling) is removed.
Issue 116: In normal condition, it is not permissible to delay in wearing iḥrāmwhether there is another mīqāt in front of him or not.
Issue 117: If a person is prevented from wearing iḥrām in one of the mīqāts, he is allowed to wear iḥrām from another mīqāt.
Issue 118: If a person avoids wearing iḥrām intentionally and he is unable to return to mīqāt due to shortage of time or another excuse and there is no other mīqāt ahead of him, and as a consequence the time for performing ‘umrah is too short, he has missed ‘umrahand his hajj is invalid. If he is still mustaṭī‘or hajj has become obligatory for him [even after losing istiṭā‘ah], he should perform hajj next year.
Issue 119: Jeddah is not considered as mīqāt nor parallel to any mīqāt. Therefore, wearing iḥrām for ‘umrah tamattu‘from this place in normal conditions is invalid. Moreover, it is obligatory for every one to go to one of mīqāts to wear iḥrām. In case, he is unable to go to mīqāt points, on the basis of obligatory caution, he should wear iḥrām by nadhr from Jeddah.
Issue 120: If a person after wearing iḥrām and exit mīqāt, becomes aware that his/her iḥrām is incorrect, it is obligatory for him to go to a mīqāt and wear iḥrām, if possible. If he cannot do so except after entering Mecca, he must wear iḥrām from Adnal-Ḥill with the intention of ‘umrah mufradah and after performing rituals of ‘umrah mufradah, he must go back to one of the mīqāts and wear iḥrāmfor ‘umrah tamattu‘.
Issue 121: A person who has performed ‘umrah tamattu‘ is permitted to exit holy city of Mecca, provided that he is certain about his return to the holy city of Mecca.
However, on the basis of mustaḥabb caution, it is better not to do so except for dire need or emergency. On the basis of caution, firstly he should wear iḥrām for hajj and then he may exit the holy city of Mecca. If wearing iḥrām would cause hardship, he may exit the holy city of Mecca without iḥrām. Those people who want to observe this caution and are compelled to exit the holy city of Mecca once or more e.g. the workers of caravans, may perform ‘umrah mufradahfirst and perform ‘umrah of tamattu‘ just before becoming muḥrimfor hajj. In this case, they should wear iḥrām for ‘umrah tamattu‘ from the mīqāt and after performing ‘umrah tamattu‘, they should wear iḥrām for hajj from the holy city of Mecca.
Issue 122: Criterion of exiting the holy city of Mecca between ‘umrah tamattu‘ and hajj is to depart from the current city of Mecca. Therefore, visiting a place which is now considered a part of the holy city of Mecca though was not considered a part of the holy city of Mecca in the past will not be considered exiting Mecca.
Issue 123: For a person who has performed ‘umrah tamattu‘ and exited Mecca without wearing iḥrām, if he returns to the Mecca during the same month in which he has performed ‘umrah, there is no need to wear iḥrāmagain for entering in the holy city of Mecca. If this person returns in the next month of performing, e.g. if he performs ‘umrah in the month of Dhul-Qa‘dah, departs from Mecca, and return to the holy city of Mecca during the month of Dhul-Ḥijjah, or if he performs ‘umrah in the month of Dhul-Qa‘dah, departs in the month of Dhul-Ḥijjah and returns again, it is obligatory for him to wear iḥrām for ‘umrah again in order to enter into the holy city of Mecca and his ‘umrah tamattu‘ which is connected with hajj will be his second ‘umrah tamattu‘. If he does not wear iḥrām again and perform second ‘umrah, his hajjtamattu‘ is not valid.
Issue 124: On the basis of obligatory caution, one should not perform ‘umrah mufradahafter performing ‘umrah tamattu‘ and prior to hajj tamattu‘. But if he performs it, it does not make ‘umrah and hajj tamattu‘ invalid.
Issue 362: Taqsīr is the fifth obligations of ‘umrah.
Issue 363: It is obligatory for a person to perform taqsīr after finishing sa‘y.Taqsīr involves cutting some strands of the hair from head, beard, mustache, or alternatively one may cut a nail of hand or foot.
Issue 364: Taqsīr, like other rituals is an act of worship in ‘umrah. So, it is obligatory that one should make intention just as intention for iḥrāmis made.
Issue 365: Shaving head is not sufficient to exit the state of iḥrām in ‘umrahtamattu‘. One must perform taqsīr so as to free oneself from state of ‘umrah tamattu‘. If a person shaves his head —purposely and knowingly — before rite of taqsīr, it is not sufficient and he must pay kaffārah of a sheep. But, if he has entered iḥrām for ‘umrahmufradah, he can choose between shaving head and doing taqsīr.
Issue 366: Plucking hair is not sufficient to exit iḥrām of ‘umrah tamattu‘; one should perform taqsīr as mentioned. If he plucks his hair instead oftaqsīr deliberately and knowingly, it is not sufficient. Moreover, he has to pay kaffārah for it.
Issue 367: If a person plucks his hair instead of doing taqsīr unknowingly and then performs hajj, his ‘umrahis void and the performed hajj will be considered as hajj ifrād. If hajj was obligatory for him, on the basis of obligatory caution, he should perform ‘umrah mufradahafter performing the rites of hajj and the next year, he has to perform ‘umrah tamattu‘ and hajj. The same ruling applies to a person who shaved his head instead of taqsīr and then performed hajj unknowingly.
Issue 368: It is not obligatory to do taqsīr directly after performing sa‘y.
Issue 369: If a person does not perform the act of taqsīr deliberately or ignorantly and without it he wears iḥrām for hajj, his ‘umrah would be void and his hajj would be considered as hajj ifrād. On the basis of obligatory caution, he should perform ‘umrah mufradah after performing hajj and if his hajj was obligatory, he should perform ‘umrah and hajj the next year.
Issue 370: If a person neglects taqsīr inadvertently and wears iḥrāmfor hajj, his iḥrāmwould be valid as well as his ‘umrah and hajj, and kaffārah is not obligatory for him. However, it is mustaḥabb to slaughter a sheep or goat as kaffārah. Rather, it is a caution not to neglect paying kaffarāh.
Issue 371: After performing taqsīr and exiting the state of iḥrām of ‘umrahtamattu‘, every forbidden thing in state of iḥrām becomes ḥalālincluding intercourse with one’s spouse.
Issue 372: Ṭawāf of nisā’ is not obligatory in ‘umrah tamattu‘. On the basis of caution, it is better to perform ṭawāf of nisā’followed by its prayer with the hope of reward before taqsīr.
However, if one wore iḥrām with the intention of ‘umrah mufradah, they — after the taqsīr or ḥalq — should perform ṭawāfof nisā’ and its prayer and only after that their spouse will be ḥalālfor them.
The manner and rulings of ṭawāf of nisā’ are similar to those of ṭawāf of ‘umrah which have been discussed already.
Issue 373: Apparently, one should perform ṭawāf of nisā’ for ‘umrah mufradah and hajj separately. For example, if a person performs two ‘umrah mufradahs or a hajj with an ‘umrah mufradah, although it is not remote that one ṭawāf of nisā’ is sufficient to make the wife ḥalāl for him, for the completion of rites he/she should perform two ṭawāfs of nisā’ for two ‘umrahs or for one ‘umrahor one hajj
 It means cutting some of the hair of head or beard or mustache or to cut a nail of hand or foot.