Hajj Merits & SIGNIFICANCE
Hajj is one of the most integral pillars of Islam upon which Islam has been established. Imam Baqir (as) says "Islam has been established on the following five elements: prayer, zakāt, fast, hajj and wilāyah".
Hajj is of two kind; obligatory and mustaḥabb, it holds immense virtue and abundant reward. Many traditions have been narrated from the Holy Prophet S.A.W. and the purified Ahl ul-Bayt as. on the merits of hajj. Imam Sadiq (Peace be upon Him) says: "Those who performHajj and ‘umrah form the delegation of Allah; if they beg Him, He will grant them; if they call upon Him, He will answer them; if they want to intercede for others, He will accept it; and if they keep quiet, He will speak on their behalf, and they will be compensated with a reward of one million dirhams for the expense of one dirham".
 Al Kafi, vol. 2 p. 18, H. 1 ; Wasaeil Ashia, vol. 1 p. 7, chapter. 1 H. 1
 Al Kafi, vol. 4, p. 255, H. 14
CAN HAJJ BE ABANDONED?
Issue 1: In the light of many verses and hadiths, a person who has qualified for Hajj and is well aware that hajj is obligatory upon him and yet does not perform it has committed a major sin.
Allah Almighty in the Holy Qur'an says:
وَلِلّهِ عَلَي النَّاسِ حِجُّ الْبَيْتِ مَنِ اسْتَطَاعَ إِلَيْهِ سَبِيلاً وَمَن كَفَرَ فَإِنَّ الله غَنِي عَنِ الْعَالَمِينَ
"Pilgrimage to the House is a duty imposed upon mankind by God for everyone who can afford a way to it. Anyone who disbelieves will find that God is Transcendent beyond any need of the Universe".
It is narrated from Imam Sadiq (as):
"If a person dies and does not perform Hajj while there was no pressing need, severe illness or any cruel ruler which may prevent him from performing it, he will die as a Jew or a Christian".
Sura Alay Imran, verse. 97
 Tahzib Al Ahkam, vol. 5, p. 17
Types of Hajj and ‘umrah
Issue 2:The hajj is basically of two types: hajj on behalf and hajj for oneself. Hajj on behalf is the hajj performed on behalf of another person, whereas hajj for oneself is hajj accomplished for oneself. Hajj for oneself is further classified into two forms: obligatory hajj and recommended hajj.
Issue 3: The obligatory hajj becomes an obligation in itself according to the Islamic law, or it becomes obligatory because of nadhr or invalidation of previous hajj.
Issue 4: For every kind of hajj, that is,ḥajjat ul-Islam and hajj on behalf — there are rulings and conditions, which will be mentioned in the first part in two chapters.
Issue 5: Obligatory hajj is further classified into three forms: tamattu‘, ifrād and qirān.
Hajj tamattu‘ is obligatory for a person whose homeland is located at a distance more than 90 km from the holy city of Mecca.
Hajj ifrād and hajjqirān are obligatory for people who reside within the holy city of Mecca or those who are settled at a distance less than the aforementioned one.
Hajj tamattu‘ differs from hajj ifrād and hajjqirān with regard to rituals.
Issue 6: The basic feature that distinguishes hajjtamattu‘ from hajj ifrādand hajj qirān is ‘umrah.Hajj tamattu‘ comprises two parts: ‘umrah and hajj. It starts with ‘umrah. A gap exists between ‘umrah and hajj during which the pilgrim comes out of iḥrām state and is allowed to tamattu‘(literally enjoy) things which are prohibited for a muḥrim (a person who is in state of iḥrām). Both ‘umrah tamattu‘ and hajj tamattu‘ should be performed in the same year.
Hajj ifrād and qirān comprise only hajj rituals, and ‘umrah in these cases is considered an independent worship termed as ‘umrah mufradah. So, a person may perform ‘umrah mufradah in one year and hajj ifrād/qirān in another year.
Issue 7: ‘Umrah tamattu‘ and ‘umrah mufradah have common rites that would be mentioned in the second section and their differences will be mentioned in issue 16.
Issue 8: Similar to hajj, ‘umrah is sometimes obligatory and other times it is mustaḥabb.
Issue 9: In Islamic jurisprudential rulings, ‘umrah is obligatory once in life. If a person fulfills the required conditions of ‘umrah, he should perform it. Like hajj, it is obligatory for those who are mustaṭī‘ to perform ‘umrahas soon as possible. For those who reside in Mecca or its vicinity (not further than ninty km from Mecca), being mustaṭī‘ for hajj is separable from being mustaṭī‘ for ‘umrah. Therefore, if a person is mustaṭī‘only for one of them, he should perform it as soon as possible.
It is noteworthy to mention here that this rule is specific only for those who live in the holy city of Mecca or reside at a distance of less than ninty kilometers from the holy city of Mecca. With regard to the people living far from Mecca and their duty is to perform hajj tamattu‘, ability and qualification for hajj and ‘umrahis not separate from each other because hajjtamattu‘ includes ‘umrah of tamattu‘ and hajj and both of them should be performed in the same year.
Issue 10:It is not lawful for a person intending to perform hajj or ‘umrah to enter the Holy City of Mecca without iḥrām. And if he wants to enter in the Holy city of Mecca in days other than hajj season, it is obligatory for him to enter the Holy City with iḥrām of ‘umrah mufradah. However, the following two groups are exempted from this commandment:
1.Those who frequently visit the holy city of Mecca for job/occupational purposes.
2.Those who have exited the Holy city of Mecca after performing the rites and acts of hajj/‘umrah and want to re-enter the holy city of Mecca during the same [lunar] month.
Issue 11: The repetition of ‘umrah is recommended similar to repetition of hajj and there lies no particular gap limit between two ‘umrahs. But, on cautionary terms one can perform only one ‘umrah for himself within a month. If he performs two ‘umrahs on behalf of others or he performs one‘umrah for himself and the second for another person, this caution is not necessary. Therefore, if he performs the second ‘umrah on behalf of another person, it is permissible for him to receive the wages of performing ‘umrahand ‘umrah mufradah will be sufficient for the performer whether it is obligatory or not.
General Structure of hajj tamattu‘ and its ‘umrah
Issue 12: Hajj tamattu‘ includes two acts: ‘umrahtamattu‘ and hajj tamattu‘.‘Umrah tamattu‘ is prior to hajj tamattu‘ and both these acts have specific deeds which are discussed below.
Issue 13: The deeds of ‘umrah tamattu‘:
1.Wearing iḥrām (hajj dress) from a mīqāt;
2.Ṭawāf around the Holy Ka‘bah;
3.Prayer of ṭawāf ;
4.sa‘y (to walk) between the mountains of Safā and Marvah;
5.Taqsīr (cutting a small quantity of hair or nail)
Issue 14: The deeds of hajjtamattu‘ are mentioned below:
1.Iḥrām (wearing dress of hajj) in the holy city of Mecca;
2.Wuqūf(staying) in ‘Arafāt from the noon of the ninth of Dhul-Ḥijjah to sunset;
3.Wuqūf (staying) in Mash‘ar ul-Ḥarām on the night before the tenth of Dhul-Ḥijjah to sunrise;
4.Stoning at Jamarah ‘Aqabah on the day of Eid ul-Adha (the tenth of Dhul-Ḥijjah);
6.Shaving head or taqsīr (cutting a small quantity of hair or nail);
7.Ṭawāf around the Holy Ka‘bah;
8.Prayer of ṭawāf ;
9.sa‘y (to walk) between the mountains of Safā and Marvah;
10.Ṭawāf of nisā’ (women);
11.Prayer of ṭawāfof nisā’;
12.To stay awake during the night before the eleventh in Minā;
13.Stoning three jamarahs on the eleventh of Dhul-Ḥijjah;
14.To stay awake during the night before the twelfth in Minā;
15.Stoning three jamarahs on the twelfth of Dhul-Ḥijjah.
hajj ifrād’ and ‘umrah mufradah
Issue 15: Hajj ifrād and hajj tamattu‘ are similar in terms of rituals and acts of worship except for one major difference of animal slaughtering. It is mandatory in hajj tamattu‘ whereas it is a recommended act in hajjifrād.
Issue 16: ‘Umrah mufradah is similar to ‘umrahtamattu‘ except for the following differences:
1.The rituals of ‘umrah tamattu‘ comprise taqsīr as obligatory act; whereas in ‘umrah mufradah, it is optional for the men, i.e. either he can have his head shaved or perform taqsīr. The rulings for the women are that they should perform taqsīr in both ‘umrahmufradah and ‘umrah tamattu‘.
2.In ‘umrah tamattu, ṭawāf of nisā’ and its prayer are not obligatory. However on the basis of caution, one should perform both of them before taqsīr with the intention of rajā’ (hope of being desired in shar‘). In ‘umrah mufradah, ṭawāf ofnisā’ and its prayer are obligatory.
3.‘Umrah tamattu‘should be performed during the months of hajj: Shawwāl, Zilqa‘dah or Dhul-Ḥijjah; whereas ‘umrah mufradahcan be performed any time during the year.
4.There are five mīqāts (the place where the dress for hajj or ‘umrah is worn) for ‘umrahtamattu‘. Mīqāt for ‘umrah mufradah varies with distance from Mecca. People residing in Mecca have adanā al-ḥillas mīqāt whereas people living out of Mecca are obliged to wear iḥrāmfrom one of the five mīqāts nearest to them.
Issue 17: Hajj qirān differs from hajj ifrād mainly in two aspects: animal slaughtering and becoming muḥrīm. During hajjqirān, the animal for slaughtering should accompany the person wearing iḥrām, thereby animal slaughtering is obligatory for him.
Likewise, in the hajj qirān, iḥrāmis carried out by saying Labbayk (specific slogan of hajj) or by ish‘ār or taqlīd(their meanings will be mentioned in issue 140) but in hajj ifrād, iḥrām is materialized only by saying Labbayk.
General Rules for hajj tamattu‘
Issue 18: For the hajj tamattu‘ to be valid, there are certain conditions be fulfilled. They are as follows:
1)Intention, i.e. from the time of wearing iḥrām for ‘umrah oftamattu‘, he should intend to perform hajj tamattu‘; otherwise, his hajj is not in order;
2)Both ‘umrah and hajj need to be performed in the months of hajj;
3)Both ‘umrah and hajj need to be performed in the same year;
4)‘Umrah and hajj should be performed for one person and by one person. This implies that a person who is performing hajj on the behalf of a dead person needs to perform both ‘umrah and hajj himself. Hiring two individuals to carry out the ‘umrah and hajj separately is not permitted.
Issue 19: A person, whose duty is to perform hajj tamattu‘, cannot change it on purpose and by choice to perform hajjifrād or qirān.
Issue 20: A person, whose duty is to perform hajj tamattu‘ but knows that the time is too short to complete ‘umrah and join hajj, should change his intention from hajj tamattu‘to hajj ifrād and after completing the rites of hajj, he should perform ‘umrah mufradah.
Issue 21: A woman, who wants to perform hajj tamattu‘ but is menstruating at the point of mīqāt, should wear iḥrām for ‘umrah tamattu‘ at mīqāt if she thinks she may be purified some time before hajj tamattu‘ and will have enough time to take ghusl, perform all the deeds of ‘umrah tamattu‘, wear iḥrām for hajj tamattu‘, and reach ‘Arafāt by 'noon' on the day of ‘Arafa.
Then, if she becomes clean from menstruation and she has sufficient time for performing deeds of ‘umrah and is able to reach ‘Arafāt by 'noon' on the day of ‘Arafa, she should do so. In case, she does not become clean or does not have sufficient time to perform the ‘umrah rituals and reach ‘Arafāt on time, she should change his intention from ‘umrah tamattu‘ to hajj ifrād, with the same iḥrāmand then perform ‘umrah mufradah; this will compensate for hajj tamattu‘.
If she is sure she will not become clean before the time for iḥrām of hajj and going to ‘Arafāt on time or she will not have time to perform ‘umrahtamattu‘ rituals before going to ‘Arafāt on time, she should enter iḥrāmin mīqāt intending performing what is her real duty or iḥrām of hajj ifrād. After performing hajj ifrād rituals, she perform ‘umrah mufradah and what she has done replaces hajj tamattu‘.
However, if a woman is clean in mīqāt but begins to menstruate on the way to Mecca in state of iḥrām or before performing ṭawāf of ‘umrahand its prayer or during the course of ṭawāf before completion of fourth round and is certain that she cannot be clean to perform ‘umrahdeeds and reach ‘Arafāt by 'noon' on the ninth of Dhul-Ḥijjah, she has two choices:
a)She can change her intention from ‘umrah tamattu‘ to hajj ifrād and once hajj ifrād is done she should perform ‘umrah mufradah. These acts replace hajj tamattu‘.
b)She postpones ṭawāf of ‘umrah and its prayer and by performing sa‘y and taqsīr she exits iḥrām of ‘umrah. Then she should wear iḥrām of hajj, go and stay (wuqūf) in ‘Arafāt and Mash‘ar, and perform deeds in Minā and after returning to the Holy city of Mecca, she should perform ṭawāf of tamattu‘and its prayer as qaḍā’ — before performing ṭawāf of hajj and its prayer and sa‘yor after performing them. This act is a compensation for hajj tamattu‘ and nothing more is obligatory for her.
If she begins to menstruate after completing her fourth round of ṭawāf, she should leave remaining rounds of ṭawāf and its prayer, perform sa‘yand taqsīr and come out of iḥrām of ‘umrah. After this, she can stay in wuqūfs and perform rites in Minā, and upon return to Mecca, and after performing ṭawāf and its prayer and sa‘y or before performing all these rites, she should perform ṭawāf of ‘umrahand its prayer. This act is a compensation for her hajjtamattu‘ and nothing more is obligatory upon her.
Issue 22: The details of rites and commandments of hajj will be mentioned in part three and in several chapters.
 In order to know how she is to perform them, you may see issue 286.
Qualification and conditions for an agent
Issue 79: The person who performs hajj on the behalf of another person should enjoy the following qualifications:
1. Adulthood on the basis of obligatory caution:
If a person who has not reached the age of shar‘īpuberty perform hajj on behalf of another person, it does not fulfill the obligation of ḥajjat ul-Islam or any obligatory hajj in general.
This refers to the fact that performance of hajj on behalf by an insane person is not valid. The same rule applies to recurrent insanity if he performs hajj in a state of insanity.
3. Belief (to be a Twelver Shiite):
On the basis of obligatory caution, the person should be a Twelver Shiite; the agency of Non-Twelver is not sufficient.
4. Basic Knowledge of hajj Rites:
The person must be well-acquainted with practices and rules of hajj so that he can perform the hajj rites correctly. This is important even if he does that with a guide who teaches him each practice at its time.
5. No other hajj is obligatory for the agent during the same year:
If the agent does not know that hajj is obligatory for him, it is not remote to say his hajj on behalf of another person is valid.
6. The agent is not excused from some hajj practices (the details will be discussed from issue 90 onwards).
Issue 80: To suffice with hajj on behalf, one should be confident that the agent has performed hajj on behalf of the represented person. But, once it is certain that he has performed hajj, it is not a condition to investigate its correctness. It is sufficient to rule it as correct.
Essential Criteria of the Represented Person
Issue 81: The represented person should enjoy the following characteristics:
1- Being a Muslim; performing hajj on behalf of an infidel is not valid.
2- The represented person should be dead or unable to perform hajj due to old age, sickness or extraordinary hardship and has no hope to regain power to perform hajj rites without being unbearably hard for him in the coming years of his life. As to mustaḥabbhajj, it is permissible to do it on behalf of another person in all cases.
Issue 82: Sanity and maturity are not categorized as a condition in the represented person.
Issues Regarding Hajj on Behalf
Issue 83: A woman may perform hajj on behalf of a man and vice versa.
Issue 84: It is permissible for a ṣarūrah (person who has not performed hajj in his life) to represent a ṣarūrah/non- ṣarūrah whether the representative or represented person is a man or a woman.
Issue 85: The intention of representation and identification of the represented person are termed as necessary conditions for hajj on behalf. However, it is not a condition for the agent to mention the name of the represented person.
Issue 86: It is incorrect to hire a person whose duty is to perform hajj ifrād, due to lack of time. However, if he is hired and accidentally he faces shortness of time, it is obligatory for him to turn to hajjifrād. This deed will compensate for hajj tamattu‘, and surely he deserves to get the wages for this deed.
Issue 87: If an agent dies after wearing the iḥrām and entering Ḥaram and he is hired so that the represented person's duty is fulfilled, he deserves a full wage. In this case, the hired person deserves the full wage and it should be given to his heirs.
Issue 88: If a person is hired to perform hajj for certain amount of money but that amount is insufficient to meet the expenditures, it is not obligatory for the hiring person to pay more. Similarly, if the amount exceeds, he has no right to claim it back.
Issue 89: In case the performed hajj on behalf is ruled insufficient to fulfill the duty of the represented person while he has been hired to perform hajj the same year, it is obligatory for him to return the amount to the hiring person. If the year is not specified, he must perform the hajj on behalf in the coming years.
Issue 90: The person who is unable to perform some rites of hajj cannot be hired as a representative. By being unable, it is meant a person who cannot perform normal rites of hajj such as a person who cannot recite talbiyah or say the ṭawāf prayer in a correct manner or is unable to walk for ṭawāfand sa‘y, or ramy (stoning) at Jamarāt with his own hands, stay in ‘Arafāt and Mash‘ar at the specified time, stay in Minā during required nights so that it amounts to defect in some hajj rites. However, if it does not amount to defect in any hajj ritual but he is excused from avoiding some prohibited acts of iḥrām, his representation is valid.
Issue 91: If a representative becomes disabled during hajj and his disability results in imperfection of some rites, it is not remote that the hire deed becomes invalid. So, by caution, hajj should be performed again and there should be reconciliation between the representative and the represented person.
Issue 92: Representation by those who are unable to have normal stay in Mash‘ar ul-Ḥarām is invalid and if they are hired, they would not deserve the wages e.g. caravan's servants who are forced to accompany the weak people or to perform some services for the caravan and as a result they leave Mash‘ar for Minā before sunrise. If these individuals are hired for hajj on behalf, they should have normal stay (wuqūf ikhtiyārī) and perform hajj.
Issue 93: As far as insufficiency in hajj on behalf by an excused person is concerned, it makes no difference, whether he is paid or volunteered to perform it, whether the representative is ignorant of his excuse or the hiring person is ignorant about this issue. Likewise, it makes no difference, whether the representative or the represented person is ignorant about the fact that this excuse makes representation invalid, e.g. the representative does not know that urgent stay is not sufficient for him.
Issue 94: It is obligatory for the representative to perform hajj in accordance with his own duty by following his own mraji‘ or by acting upon his own fatwā if he is a mujtahid.
Issue 95: If a pilgrim on behalf dies after wearing iḥrām and entering the Ḥaram, that act compensates for the hajj of the represented person. However, if he dies after wearing iḥrām and before entering into Ḥaram, on the basis of obligatory caution his deed is not sufficient. It does not matter, whether his representation is for free or not, whether he is performing ḥajjat ul-Islam or another obligatory hajj.
Issue 96: He who performed hajj as a representative without performing his own ḥajjat ul-Islam earlier to this, performs, by mustaḥabb caution, ‘umrah mufradah on his own behalf before leaving the city of Mecca, if possible.
Issue 97: After performing hajj on behalf, a representative is allowed to perform ṭawāfor ‘umrah mufradah for himself or on behalf of others.
Issue 98: On the basis of obligatory caution, the condition of being a Shi‘a, which is necessary in hajj representation, is also necessary in a person who performs the rites of hajj — such as ṭawāf, stoning, animal slaughtering A on behalf of others.
Issue 99: The pilgrim on behalf must perform rites of hajj, including ṭawāf nisā, intending on behalf of the represented person.