The Office of the Supreme Leader

Practical Laws of Islam

  • Rules of Taqlīd
    • Options: Caution, Ijtihād, and Taqlīd
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      Options: Caution, Ijtihād, and Taqlīd


      Q 1: Is taqlīd an absolute rational issue or is it also grounded on jurisprudential evidence?
      A: Taqlīd has its jurisprudential evidence in addition to reason which also admits that a person who is ignorant of religious rules should refer to a qualified mujtahid.
      Q 2: Is it better, in your opinion, to act with caution or to follow a marji‘?
      A: Acting according to caution depends upon knowledge of its cases (instances in which it is applied) and its method. In addition, acting according to caution is time consuming. Thus, it is preferable to follow a qualified mujtahid.
      Q 3: What are the limits of acting upon caution with respect to the fatwās of mujtahids? Is it necessary to take into consideration the fatwās of the past mujtahids as well?
      A: Acting according to caution, when it is applicable, means observing all jurisprudential probabilities so that the mukallaf feels confident that he is really doing his duty.
      Q 4: My daughter will reach the age of shar‘ī puberty in a few weeks, and consequently, she will have to select a marji‘ (to follow). Since she has some difficulties in understanding this matter, kindly advise us about our duty in this regard?
      A: If she could not recognize her religious duty in this regard, you should educate and guide her.
      Q 5: It is well-known among mujtahids that identifying the subject of a rule is the responsibility of the mukallaf whereas the determination of the rule itself is the duty of the mujtahid. But in many instances we notice that mujtahids give their opinion with respect to the identification of the subject. Is it obligatory to act upon them in this regard?
      A: The responsibility of identifying the subject rests with the mukallaf. Therefore, he is not obliged to follow the identification of his mujtahid unless he feels confident of the mujtahid’s identification or the subject is something the identification of which requires jurisprudential derivation.
      Q 6: Will one be considered a sinner if he is careless in learning the religious rules that he frequently encounters?
      A: If his carelessness in learning religious rules leads to forsaking an obligation or committing a ḥarām action, he will be a sinner.
      Q 7: When some individuals, who are not well informed, are asked whom they follow, they reply: "We do not know" or say: "We follow this or that marji‘" without feeling any obligation to refer to his book on practical laws of Islam and act upon it. What is the rule concerning their actions?
      A: If their actions are in accordance with caution or in agreement with the fatwā of the mujtahid to whom they were, or they are now, obligated to refer in taqlīd, their actions are ruled to be alright.
      Q 8: In cases where the most learned mujtahid gives a fatwā of obligatory caution, we can refer to the second most learned one. Our question is that if he also calls for obligatory caution, is it permissible to refer to the third most learned one and so on? Please explain this rule.
      A: In case the most learned mujtahid issues caution, there is no objection to referring to the most learned among those who has a clear-cut fatwā on the issue and does not call for obligatory caution.
    • Conditions of Taqlīd
    • Methods to Know Who Is Mujtahid
    • To Change from One Marji‘ to Another
    • To Continue with Following a Deceased Marji‘
    • Miscellaneous Issues of Taqlīd
    • Marji‘iyyah and Leadership
    • Authority of the Jurist Leader and the Edict of the Authorized Religious Authority
  • Rules on Purity
  • Prayer
  • Fasting
  • Khums
  • Jihad
  • Enjoining the Good and Forbidding Evil
  • Ḥarām Gains
  • Chess and Gambling Instruments
  • Music and Ghinā’
  • Dancing
  • Clapping
  • Non-maḥrams’ Pictures and Films
  • Satellite Television Equipment
  • Theatre and Cinema
  • Painting and Sculpture
  • Magic, Conjuring, and Evocation of Spirits and Jinn
  • Hypnosis
  • Lottery
  • Bribery
  • Medical Issues
  • Teaching, Learning and Their Proprieties
  • Copyrights
  • Dealing with non-Muslims
  • Working for Oppressive States
  • Rules on Clothing and Conspicuous ones
  • Treating the West
  • Smoking and Narcotics
  • Shaving the Beard
  • Attending Gatherings of Debauchery
  • Writing Supplications and Istikhārah
  • Religious Events
  • Hoarding and Extravagance
  • Buying and Selling
  • Miscellaneous Issues in Business
  • Rules Concerning Ribā
  • Right of Pre-emption
  • Hiring, Renting, and Lease
  • Surety
  • Pawning and Mortgaging
  • Partnership
  • Presents and Gifts
  • Debt and Loan
  • Ṣulḥ
  • Power of Attorney
  • Mustaḥabb Alms
  • Deposits and Loaned Properties
  • Leaving a Will
  • Usurpation
  • Placement under Guardianship and Signs of Maturity
  • Silent Partnership
  • Banking
  • State Property
  • Endowments
  • Rules Concerning Graveyards
  • Glossary
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