The Office of the Supreme Leader

Practical Laws of Islam

  • Rules of Taqlīd
    • Options: Caution, Ijtihād, and Taqlīd
    • Conditions of Taqlīd
    • Methods to Know Who Is Mujtahid
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      Methods to Know Who Is Mujtahid / the Most Learned Mujtahid, and to Obtain His fatwās
      Q 24: I verified the competence of a certain mujtahid as marji‘ through the testimony of two just persons, is it obligatory for me to ask other persons about this matter also?
      A: The testimony of two just experts regarding the competence of a certain mujtahid and that he meets all requirements is enough to consider his following as permissible and it is not necessary to ask others thereafter.
      Q 25: What are the methods for selecting a marji‘ and obtaining his fatwās?
      A: Ijtihād of a marji‘ and that he is the most learned one is verified through examining him and becoming certain, even if due to publicity which makes one certain or confident, or the testimony of two just experts.
      The fatwā of a marji‘ could be obtained:
      a) by hearing it from him,
      b) by the speech of one `ādil (just) or reliable person who narrates from the same mujtahid or his reliable risālah (book on practical laws of Islam),
      c) by referring to his reliable risālah.


      Q 26: Is it correct to make another person one’s agent in selecting a marji‘, such as the representation of a son by his father or a student by his teacher?

      A: If what is meant is to entrust to one’s father, teacher, etc., the task of searching for a qualified mujtahid, there is no objection to it. Their opinion in this matter is valid in shar‘ and considered as a proof provided that their opinion induces knowledge or confidence, or it meets the criteria of evidence and testimony.
      Q 27: I asked several mujtahids about the most learned mujtahid. They told me that following so-and-so (may Allah, the Exalted, elevate his spiritual ranks) would discharge me of my obligation. May I rely on their opinion if I personally do not know whether or not he is the most learned or I doubt, or I am certain, that he is not the most learned mujtahid due to the existence of others with similar evidences in their favor?
      A: If shar‘ī evidence is established that a qualified mujtahid is the most knowledgeable, it is binding proof upon which one may rely as long as there is no contradicting evidence, even if it does not induce certainty or confidence. In such a case, it is not necessary to search for opposing evidence and make sure that it does not exist.
      Q 28: Someone does not have formal permission (from a mujtahid to transmit his fatwās). Moreover, he occasionally makes mistakes in relating fatwās. Is it permissible for him to relate the mujtahid’s opinions? What is our duty if he relates fatwās by reciting the book on practical laws of Islam?
      A: Permission is not required to transmit a mujtahid’s fatwā or to explain religious rules. However, if a person notices his mistake in relating a fatwā, it is obligatory for him, if possible, to correct their mistake. In any case, it will not be permissible for the listener to act upon the statements of someone who relates fatwās unless he obtains confidence regarding the correctness of his statements.


    • To Change from One Marji‘ to Another
    • To Continue with Following a Deceased Marji‘
    • Miscellaneous Issues of Taqlīd
    • Marji‘iyyah and Leadership
    • Authority of the Jurist Leader and the Edict of the Authorized Religious Authority
  • Rules on Purity
  • Prayer
  • Fasting
  • Khums
  • Jihad
  • Enjoining the Good and Forbidding Evil
  • Ḥarām Gains
  • Chess and Gambling Instruments
  • Music and Ghinā’
  • Dancing
  • Clapping
  • Non-maḥrams’ Pictures and Films
  • Satellite Television Equipment
  • Theatre and Cinema
  • Painting and Sculpture
  • Magic, Conjuring, and Evocation of Spirits and Jinn
  • Hypnosis
  • Lottery
  • Bribery
  • Medical Issues
  • Teaching, Learning and Their Proprieties
  • Copyrights
  • Dealing with non-Muslims
  • Working for Oppressive States
  • Rules on Clothing and Conspicuous ones
  • Treating the West
  • Smoking and Narcotics
  • Shaving the Beard
  • Attending Gatherings of Debauchery
  • Writing Supplications and Istikhārah
  • Religious Events
  • Hoarding and Extravagance
  • Buying and Selling
  • Miscellaneous Issues in Business
  • Rules Concerning Ribā
  • Right of Pre-emption
  • Hiring, Renting, and Lease
  • Surety
  • Pawning and Mortgaging
  • Partnership
  • Presents and Gifts
  • Debt and Loan
  • Ṣulḥ
  • Power of Attorney
  • Mustaḥabb Alms
  • Deposits and Loaned Properties
  • Leaving a Will
  • Usurpation
  • Placement under Guardianship and Signs of Maturity
  • Silent Partnership
  • Banking
  • State Property
  • Endowments
  • Rules Concerning Graveyards
  • Glossary
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