The Office of the Supreme Leader

Practical Laws of Islam

    • Rules of Taqlīd
    • Rules on Purity
      • Rules Concerning the Different Types of Water
      • Rules of the Lavatory
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        Rules of the Lavatory
        Q 88: The nomadic tribes do not have sufficient water, especially during the days of their migration, for purifying the urinary outlet. Is it sufficient to purify it with wood or pebbles? And can they offer their prayers in such a situation?
        A: The urinary outlet cannot be purified except by water. But if it is not possible to purify it with water, the prayer will be valid.
        Q 89: What is the rule with respect to purifying the urinary outlet and the anus with qalīl water?
        A: For purification of the urinary outlet with qalīl water it is necessary, after removing the inherently najis material, to wash it twice with water according to caution; and for the anus it is obligatory to wash it until the inherently najis material and its traces are removed.
        Q 90: Customarily, it is obligatory for men who want to perform prayer to do istibrā’ after urination. I have a wound on my penis that bleeds while doing istibrā’ due to pressure upon the penis, and thus blood is mixed with the water used for purification causes my body and clothes to become najis. If I do not do istibrā’, the wound will possibly heal earlier. Doing istibrā’, which puts pressure on the penis, would certainly cause the wound to persist and heel only after the next three months. Please explain whether I should do istibrā’ or not?
        A: Doing istibrā’ is not obligatory. Furthermore, it is not allowed if it causes a considerable harm. However, after urination if one does not do istibrā’ and a doubtful liquid comes out, it will be ruled as urine.
        Q 91: Occasionally, after urinating and doing istibrā’, wetness similar to urine comes out involuntarily. Is it najis or pure? And, if one notices the problem by chance after a while, what is the rule concerning the prayers he has performed earlier? Is it obligatory in the future to examine this wetness, which comes out involuntarily?
        A: The wetness that comes out after doing istibrā’, about which one doubts whether it is urine or not, is not considered urine. It is to be considered pure, and it is not obligatory to do any investigation in this case.
        Q 92: Please give an explanation concerning the different wet discharges that one may experience.
        A: The wetness that comes out occasionally after the discharge of semen is called ‘wadhi’ That which comes out occasionally after urinating is called ‘wadi’, and that which comes out after foreplay is called ‘madhi’. All of them are pure and do not invalidate wuḍū’.
        Q 93: A toilet seat was fixed in a direction totally different from the direction believed to be that of the qiblah. After some time it was known that the direction of the toilet seat is deviated with 20 to 22 degrees from the direction of the qiblah. Is it obligatory to change the direction of the toilet seat or not?
        A: Assuming the deviation from the direction of qiblah is enough to be considered a deviation, there is no problem.
        Q 94: Due to a urinary disease, the urine does not stop and wetness comes out after urinating and doing istibrā’. I have consulted a physician and acted on his prescription but it had no use. What is my duty?
        A: Doubt concerning discharge of urine after doing istibrā’ is not to be taken into account. But if one is certain that there is a discharge of some drops of urine, one’s obligation is to act according to the duty of that who is incontinent to urine as explained in Imam Khomeini’s (q.) book on Practical laws of Islam and he has no other duty.
        Q 95: How is istibrā’ done before purifying anus?
        A: There is no difference between performing it before or after purifying anus.
        Q 96: Employment in some companies and institutions depends on undergoing a medical examination that partly includes exposing one’s private parts and looking at them. Is that permissible when one needs to find a job?
        A: It is not permissible to expose one’s private parts before another person nor the latter's looking at them, even if one’s employment depends upon it. Of course, if the doctor thinks the would-be employee may be sick while employing him like that is against the law and there is no way other than direct physical examination to diagnose the illness, looking becomes permissible only in this case.
        Q 97: After urination, how many times should the urinary outlet be washed to become pure?
        A: According to the obligatory caution, the urinary outlet will become pure by washing it two times with qalīl water.
        Q 98: How could the excretory outlet (anus) be made pure?
        A: The excretory outlet could be made pure through two methods. First: washing it with water until the najis material is removed after which there would be no need for further washing. Second: removing the najis material with three pure pieces of stone, clothes or the likes. If the najis material is not removed with these three pieces, more pieces could be used until the najis material is completely removed. Instead of three pieces, one could use three sites of the same piece of stone or cloth.


      • Rules of Wuḍū’
      • The Rules for Touching the Names of Allah, the Glorious, and the Verses of the Qur’an
      • Rules of the Ghusl of Janābah
      • Rules of an Invalid Ghusl
      • Rules of Tayammum
      • Rules Pertaining to Women
      • Rules of the Dead
      • Rules of Najis Substances
      • Ruling of Intoxicants
      • Obsession and Its Treatment
      • Rules of Non-Muslims
    • Prayer
    • Fasting
    • Khums
    • Jihad
    • Enjoining the Good and Forbidding Evil
    • Ḥarām Gains
    • Chess and Gambling Instruments
    • Music and Ghinā’
    • Dancing
    • Clapping
    • Non-maḥrams’ Pictures and Films
    • Satellite Television Equipment
    • Theatre and Cinema
    • Painting and Sculpture
    • Magic, Conjuring, and Evocation of Spirits and Jinn
    • Hypnosis
    • Lottery
    • Bribery
    • Medical Issues
    • Teaching, Learning and Their Proprieties
    • Copyrights
    • Dealing with non-Muslims
    • Working for Oppressive States
    • Clothing
    • Treating the West
    • Smoking and Narcotics
    • Shaving the Beard
    • Attending Gatherings of Debauchery
    • Writing Supplications and Istikhārah
    • Religious Events
    • Hoarding and Extravagance
    • Buying and Selling
    • Miscellaneous Issues in Business
    • Rules Concerning Ribā
    • Right of Pre-emption
    • Hiring, Renting, and Lease
    • Surety
    • Pawning and Mortgaging
    • Partnership
    • Presents and Gifts
    • Debt and Loan
    • Ṣulḥ
    • Power of Attorney
    • Mustaḥabb Alms
    • Deposits and Loaned Properties
    • Leaving a Will
    • Usurpation
    • Placement under Guardianship and Signs of Maturity
    • Silent Partnership
    • Banking
    • State Property
    • Endowments
    • Rules Concerning Graveyards
    • Glossary
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