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Practical Laws of Islam

    • Rules of Taqlīd
    • Rules on Purity
      • Rules Concerning the Different Types of Water
      • Rules of the Lavatory
      • Rules of Wuḍū’
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        Rules of Wuḍū’
         
        Q 99: Having made wuḍū’ with the intention of having wuḍū’ for the prayer of maghrib, is it permissible for one to touch the Noble Qur’an and offer the prayer of ‘ishā’ with the same wuḍū’?
        A: Once a valid wuḍū’ is made and it has not become invalid, it is permissible to perform any act that requires wuḍū’.
         
        Q 100: A person who wears artificial hair on his head and it is difficult for him not to wear it, is it permissible for him to wipe over it in wuḍū’?
        A: If the artificial hair is in the form of a wig, it is obligatory to remove it and do wiping. But if it is implanted in the skin and its removal is infeasible or entails harm or hardship which cannot be tolerated and it is impossible, with such hair, to make wetness reach the scalp, it is enough to do masḥ on this very hair. However, it is caution to do tayammum as well.
         
        Q 101: I have been told that one can pour only two handfuls of water on the face during wuḍū’, and a third one will invalidate the wuḍū’, is that correct?
        A: Washing wuḍū’ parts is obligatory for the first time and permissible for the second time. But it is not said in shar‘ to wash it for the third time. The criterion in determining each time is one’s intention. Therefore if somebody pours two or more handfuls of water on his face as the first time, there is nothing wrong with it.

         

        Q 102: In doing wuḍū’ by immersion, is it permissible to submerge the face and the hands into the water more than two times?
        A: For wuḍū’ by immersion one may submerge the face and the hands only twice into the water. It is obligatory for the first time, permissible for the second time, and impermissible for more than that. Regarding the hands, in the given wuḍū’, one should intend washing for wuḍū’ when bringing them out of water in order to make it possible to use their wuḍū’ water for wiping.
         
        Q 103: Are the natural oily secretions of the body — that cover the hair and skin — considered a barrier that would prevent water from reaching the skin?
        A: It is not considered a barrier unless it is so much that it would prevent water from reaching the skin and the hair.
         
        Q 104: For some time I was not wiping the tips of my toes while performing the wiping in wuḍū’. I was only wiping the upper surface of the foot and part of the toes. Is this wiping valid? In case of invalidity, is it obligatory for me to repeat the prayers that I have performed with such wuḍū’?
        A: If the tips of the toes are not covered in the wiping process, the wuḍū’ is invalid and it is obligatory to repeat all the prayers offered with such a wuḍū’. But in case that one knew the ruling and probably he was wiping the tips of the toes during wiping, the wuḍū’s and the prayers offered with them are ruled to be correct.
         
        Q 105: What is meant by the ‘ka‘b’ up to which the wiping of the foot is to be made?
        A: It is obligatory that the wiping is made up to the ankle joint.
         
        Q 106: What is the rule concerning wuḍū’ performed in the masjids, centers, and government offices built by the government in other Islamic countries?
        A: It is permissible and there is no shar‘ī impediment in doing so.
         
        Q 107: A spring flows out in a piece of land. If we want to carry the water by pipes to an area at a distance of several kilometers, it is necessary to lay pipes on land of some other people. In the case of dissatisfaction of the owners, is it permissible to use the spring water for wuḍū’, ghusl and other acts of purification?
        A: If the spring is natural, situated beside and outside other’s property, and its water flows into the pipes before it flows on the ground and carried to the said area, there is nothing wrong in using the water unless the common view consider it a violation of others’ properties.
         
        Q 108: Although the city water supply department interdicted installation of pumps in the pipeline, in some places water pressure is so low that people in higher stories are forced to use pumps. Considering the abovementioned situation, please provide us with the answer to the following questions:
        i. According to Islam, is it permissible to install pumps in order to use more water?
        ii. If it is not permissible, what is the ruling in regard to performing wuḍū’ and ghusl with water got through a pump?
        A: In the given question, it is not permissible to install and use a pump. Furthermore, performing wuḍū’ and ghusl with water obtained through a pump is problematic.
         
        Q 109: In one of your answers you have stated that if wuḍū’ is done at a time near to the beginning time of prayer, the prayer performed therewith is valid. So how far before the beginning time of prayer have you meant?
        A: The criterion is that common people consider it near to the arrival of the time of prayer, and there is no objection to the wuḍū’ performed — for the prayer — within that period.
         
        Q 110: Is it mustaḥabb for someone who performs wuḍū’ to wipe the lower surface of the toes that touches the ground while walking?
        A: The place of the wiping is the upper surface of the foot from the tip of one of the toes to the ankle, and the recommendation of wiping the lower part of the toes is not proved.
         
        Q 111: If someone who performs wuḍū’ opens and closes the faucet while washing his hands and face with the intent of wuḍū’, what is the ruling concerning this act?
        A: There is no problem in doing so and it does not harm the validity of the wuḍū’. However, after washing the left hand and before performing the wiping, if one puts his hand on the wet faucet and the water used for wuḍū’ in the hand is mixed with water which was not used for wuḍū’, the validity of wiping with this water becomes problematic.
         
        Q 112: Is it possible to use water other than that of wuḍū’ for wiping? And is it necessary to wipe the head with the right hand and in an up-down direction?
        A: It is obligatory to do wiping on the head and the feet with the remnant wetness of wuḍū’ remained in the hand and in case that no remnant wetness is there, the wetness should be taken from the beard or the eyebrows by the hand and to do wiping with it. Also, it is based on caution to do wiping on the head with the right hand but it is not necessary to wipe the head in an up-down direction.
         
        Q 113: Some women claim that fingernail polish does not create a hindrance for the wuḍū’ and that it is permissible to do wiping over transparent socks. What is your opinion?
        A: If the fingernail polish has a substance that prevents water from reaching the nails, the wuḍū’ is void, and wiping performed on socks is incorrect, however transparent they may be.
         
        Q 114: Is it permissible for those wounded in war, who have lost bladder control due to the severing of the spinal cord, to attend the Friday congregational sermons and take part in the Friday and afternoon prayers with wuḍū’ performed according to the duties of someone who is incontinent for urine?
        A: They may participate in a Friday prayer. But as it is obligatory for them to begin the prayer after wuḍū’ without delay, their wuḍū’ performed before the sermons is not sufficient for the Friday prayer unless no invalidator of wuḍū’ (e.g. urination) occurred after wuḍū’.
         
        Q 115: Someone gets assistance in making wuḍū’ as he is unable to perform wuḍū’ on his own. Then he makes intentions and performs the wiping with his own hand. And when unable to do the wiping himself, the assistant takes his hand and does the wiping with it, and when that cannot be done the assistant takes the moisture from his hand and does the wiping with it. But what is the rule when he does not have hands?
        A: If he does not have a palm, the moisture would be taken from his forearm, and if there is no forearm the moisture would be taken from his beard or eyebrow, and with it the wiping of the head and the feet is carried out.
         
        Q 116: Near the place where Friday prayer is performed, there is a place for wuḍū’ affiliated to the local jāmi‘ masjid but the water is not paid for by the budget of the masjid. Is it permissible for those performing Friday prayer to use that water for wuḍū’?
        A: As the water is prepared for performing wuḍū’ for all those who perform prayer, without any restrictions, there is no problem in using it.

         

        Q 117:Q 117: Is wuḍū’ performed for the noon and afternoon prayers also sufficient for the maghrib and ‘ishā’ prayers, this is when one knows that nothing occurred within this time that might annul the wuḍū’? Or is it obligatory to make a separate intention and wuḍū’ for each prayer?
        A: It is not necessary to perform wuḍū’ for every prayer. Rather, It is allowed to offer as many prayers as one wants with a single wuḍū’ as long as it remains valid.
         
        Q 118: Is it permissible to do wuḍū’ with the intention of offering the daily obligatory prayer before the beginning of its time?
        A: There is no problem in doing wuḍū’ with the intention of performing the daily obligatory prayer a little while before its time begins.
         
        Q 119: My feet are affected with paralysis and I walk with the help of medical shoes and crutches. It is not possible for me to take off the shoes for wuḍū’. Please explain my shar‘ī duty concerning the wiping of the feet.
        A: If removing the shoes for wiping the feet is so difficult for you, wiping over the shoes is sufficient and valid.
         
        Q 120: After searching for water in a range of several farsakh, we found only some dirty water. Is it obligatory to do tayammum in this condition or to do wuḍū’ with this water?
        A: If the water is pure and unadulterated and there is no harm or fear of harm in using it, it is obligatory to do wuḍū’, and it is not the occasion for tayammum.
         
        Q 121: Is wuḍū’ by itself mustaḥabb? And is it valid to perform wuḍū’ for the sake of nearness to Allah before the time of prayer arrives and then to offer the prayer with that wuḍū’?
        A: Doing wuḍū’ for the sake of being in a state of purity is mustaḥabb and preferable in Islamic law and it is permissible to perform prayer with a mustaḥabb wuḍū’.
         
        Q 122: How could a person who is always doubtful about the validity of his wuḍū’ go to the masjid, pray, read the Noble Qur’an, and visit the shrine of the Infallibles (a.)?
        A: No attention should be paid to doubt concerning state of purity after the performance of wuḍū’. And it is permissible for one to offer prayer and read the Noble Qur’an, etc. as long as one is not certain that his wuḍū’ has been invalidated.
         
        Q 123: For wuḍū’ to be correct, is it a condition that the water should flow over the whole hand, or is it sufficient that the hands are wiped with a wet hand?
        A: One may do mash of the head on the upper part of scalp or its hair. However, if the hair of another part of the head is collected on the upper part or the hair of upper part of the head is so long that now it is on the shoulder or face, it is not enough to pass wet hand on it. Rather, one must part the hair to do mash on the upper part of the scalp or the base of the hair.
         
        Q 124: In wiping the head, is it sufficient to make the hair wet or is it obligatory that the moisture from the hand reaches the skin of the head, as well?
        A: One may do mash of the head on the upper part of scalp or its hair. However, if the hair of another part of the head is collected on the upper part or the hair of upper part of the head is so long that now it is on the shoulder or face, it is not enough to pass wet hand on it. Rather, one must part the hair to do mash on the upper part of the scalp or the base of the hair.
         
        Q 125: Someone is using a wig, how can he wipe his head? And what is his duty in the case of ghusl?
        A: If the hair is implanted, it is impossible to remove it or its removal entails harm and unbearable difficulty and it is impossible to make the scalp wet due to the hairs, wiping over these hairs is sufficient. The same ruling is applicable to ghusl, as well.
         
        Q 126: What is the rule concerning an interval of time, which may separate the wiping and / or the washing of different body parts during wuḍū’ or ghusl?
        A: There is no problem in an interval time — i.e. not observing succession — during the ghusl. However, wuḍū’ will be invalid if there is a delay in completing it to the extent that previously washed or wiped body parts dry up.
         
        Q 127: What is the duty of a person suffering from continuous discharge of gas, though in a small amount, regarding wuḍū’ and prayers?
        A: If he cannot keep his wuḍū’ until the end of the prayer, and the renewal of wuḍū’ during the prayer is so difficult, he can pray only one prayer with each wuḍū’. That is, for each prayer the performance of one wuḍū’ is sufficient, though it would become invalid during the prayer.
         
        Q 128: Some people who live in residential complexes refuse to pay their share of the expense of keeping a watchman and other services including cold and hot water, air conditioning, and so forth. Are prayers, fasting and other acts of worship of such people, who put the financial burden of the mentioned services on the shoulders of their unwilling neighbors, invalid from the viewpoint of Islamic law?
        A: Each person is liable for paying the expenses of the common facilities he shares in, according to Islamic law. And if he does not want to pay the cost of water which he uses for wuḍū’ and ghusl, they are invalid.
         
        Q 129: Someone performed ghusl of janābah and wants to offer the prayer after about 3 or 4 hours, but he does not know whether his ghusl is still valid or not. Is there any problem if he performs wuḍū’ as a caution?
        A: In this case, performing wuḍū’ is not obligatory, but there is no objection to taking caution.
         
        Q 130: Does the wuḍū’ of an immature child become invalid due to wuḍū’ invalidators? Is it permissible to allow the child to touch the writings of the Noble Qur’an?
        A: Yes, wuḍū’ invalidators makes the wuḍū’ of the child invalid. However, touching the script of the Noble Qur’an is not ḥarām for the child and it is not obligatory for a mukallaf to prevent him from touching it.
         
        Q 131: One of the body parts involved in wuḍū’ becomes najis after being washed and before the completion of the wuḍū’. What is its rule?
        A: That does not harm the validity of the wuḍū’, though it is obligatory to purify that part to obtain a state of purity from najāsah, which is required for prayer.
         
        Q 132: Does it matter if there are some drops of water on the foot while wiping them for wuḍū’?
        A: It is obligatory to wipe these drops of water off the wiping site so that the hand used to wipe the foot will wet the foot, not the reverse.
         
        Q 133: Is one relieved of the obligation of wiping the right foot if the right hand, for instance, is amputated from above the elbow?
        A: No, it is obligatory for him to wipe it with the left hand.
         
        Q 134: What is the duty of someone who has a wound or a fracture in one of his body parts involved in wuḍū’?
        A: If the wound or the fracture is not dressed and it is not harmful to wash it with water, it should be washed. However, if washing it is harmful, the surrounding area is to be washed and it is based on obligatory caution to wipe it with wet hand if it is not harmful.
         
        Q 135: What is the duty of a person who is wounded in those areas involved in wiping in wuḍū’?
        A: If he cannot wipe the wound with a wet hand, he is obliged to do tayammum instead. But if he can put a piece of cloth on the wound and do wiping over it with a wet hand, by caution, in addition to doing tayammum, he should perform wuḍū’ according to the mentioned method.
         
        Q 136: A person does not know that his wuḍū’ is invalid, and comes to know about it only after completing the wuḍū’. What is the rule?
        A: It is obligatory for him to repeat the wuḍū’ for the acts that require wuḍū’, such as prayers. If he has offered prayer with this void wuḍū’, he should repeat this prayer as well.
         
        Q 137: One has a wound on one of the limbs involved in the wuḍū’ process; which bleeds continuously despite of putting the dressing on it. How can they perform wuḍū’?
        A: It is obligatory for them to use a dressing on the wound, such as one made of nylon, which prevents blood from oozing out.
         
        Q 138: Is it makrūh to wipe off the moisture after wuḍū’? And is it mustaḥabb to abstain from doing so?
        A: If a particular towel or piece of cloth is specified for such an act, there is no objection to it.
         
        Q 139: Would the artificial dye which women use to dye their hair and eyebrows act as an impediment to the validity of wuḍū’ or ghusl?
        A: If it is just dye that does not have a substance that prevents water from reaching the hair, wuḍū’ and ghusl would be both valid.

         

        Q 140: Is the presence of ink on the hands among the obstacles of water that invalidate the wuḍū’?
        A: If it has a substance that prevents water from reaching the skin, the wuḍū’ is invalid and the decision concerning the instances rests with the mukallaf.
         
        Q 141: Does wuḍū’ become void if the moisture of the hand comes into contact with that on the face while wiping the head?
        A: As it is obligatory that wiping of the feet is done with the palms’ moisture which remains from the wuḍū’ water, one should not touch the top of the forehead with the hand while wiping the head in a manner that the hand’s moisture comes into contact with the moisture on the face. This is to prevent the hand’s moisture, needed for wiping the feet, from being mixed with that on the face.
         
        Q 142: A person takes much more time for wuḍū’ than is ordinarily needed, what is he to do to become certain that he has washed the parts involved in wuḍū’?
        A: It is obligatory for him to refrain from obsession and to ignore it in order to disappoint Satan. He should also try to confine himself, like other people, to the extent that is required by Islamic law.
         
        Q 143: There are tattoos on some parts of my body and I am told that my ghusl, wuḍū’, and prayers are invalid. Please guide me in this matter.
        A: If the tattoos are merely color or it is under the skin and there is nothing on the skin to prevent water from reaching it, then wuḍū’ and ghusl are valid.
         
        Q 144: After urinating, doing istibrā’, and performing wuḍū’, a fluid suspected of being either urine or semen came out. What is its rule?
        A: In the given question, it is obligatory to perform both wuḍū’ and ghusl in order to obtain certainty of purity from the invalidators of both of them.
         
        Q 145: Please state the difference between the wuḍū’ of men and women.
        A: There is no difference between men and women in respect of the acts of wuḍū’ and its procedure. However, it is mustaḥabb for men while washing the elbow to begin with its outer side, and for women to begin with its inner side.
      • The Rules for Touching the Names of Allah, the Glorious, and the Verses of the Qur’an
      • Rules of the Ghusl of Janābah
      • Rules of an Invalid Ghusl
      • Rules of Tayammum
      • Rules Pertaining to Women
      • Rules of the Dead
      • Rules of Najis Substances
      • Ruling of Intoxicants
      • Obsession and Its Treatment
      • Rules of Non-Muslims
    • Prayer
    • Fasting
    • Khums
    • Jihad
    • Enjoining the Good and Forbidding Evil
    • Ḥarām Gains
    • Chess and Gambling Instruments
    • Music and Ghinā’
    • Dancing
    • Clapping
    • Non-maḥrams’ Pictures and Films
    • Satellite Television Equipment
    • Theatre and Cinema
    • Painting and Sculpture
    • Magic, Conjuring, and Evocation of Spirits and Jinn
    • Hypnosis
    • Lottery
    • Bribery
    • Medical Issues
    • Teaching, Learning and Their Proprieties
    • Copyrights
    • Dealing with non-Muslims
    • Working for Oppressive States
    • Clothing
    • Treating the West
    • Smoking and Narcotics
    • Shaving the Beard
    • Attending Gatherings of Debauchery
    • Writing Supplications and Istikhārah
    • Religious Events
    • Hoarding and Extravagance
    • Buying and Selling
    • Miscellaneous Issues in Business
    • Rules Concerning Ribā
    • Right of Pre-emption
    • Hiring, Renting, and Lease
    • Surety
    • Pawning and Mortgaging
    • Partnership
    • Presents and Gifts
    • Debt and Loan
    • Ṣulḥ
    • Power of Attorney
    • Mustaḥabb Alms
    • Deposits and Loaned Properties
    • Leaving a Will
    • Usurpation
    • Placement under Guardianship and Signs of Maturity
    • Silent Partnership
    • Banking
    • State Property
    • Endowments
    • Rules Concerning Graveyards
    • Glossary
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