The Office of the Supreme Leader

Practical Laws of Islam

    • Rules of Taqlīd
    • Rules on Purity
      • Rules Concerning the Different Types of Water
      • Rules of the Lavatory
      • Rules of Wuḍū’
      • The Rules for Touching the Names of Allah, the Glorious, and the Verses of the Qur’an
      • Rules of the Ghusl of Janābah
      • Rules of an Invalid Ghusl
      • Rules of Tayammum
      • Rules Pertaining to Women
      • Rules of the Dead
      • Rules of Najis Substances
      • Ruling of Intoxicants
      • Obsession and Its Treatment
      • Rules of Non-Muslims
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        Rules of Non-Muslims
        Q 312: Some mujtahids are of the opinion that the People of the Book are najis, while some others consider them pure. What is your opinion?
        A: It is not established that the People of the Book are najis themselves; rather, we consider them as pure by themselves.
        Q 313: Are the People of the Book, who accept the Prophethood of the Seal of the Prophets (s.) but follow the practice of their ancestors in matters of worship, considered non-Muslims as far as of the rules of purity are concerned?
        A: Solely having faith in the Prophethood of the Seal of the prophets (s.) is not sufficient for considering someone Muslim. However, such persons are considered pure if they belong to The People of the Book.
        Q 314: A number of friends and I rented a house together and then came to know that one of them does not perform prayers. After inquiring him about the reason, he replied that he has faith in Allah, the Glorious, and the Exalted; but does not perform prayers. Considering that we eat food together and there is lot of contact among us; do we consider him najis or pure?
        A: Merely forsaking the performance of prayers and not observing the fast or other shar‘ī obligations, do not make a Muslim an apostate or najis. Rather, as long as his apostasy is not confirmed, his ruling is the same as that of other Muslims.


        Q 315: What are the religions whose followers are considered the People of the Book? What is the criterion for defining the limits of social relations with them?
        A: By the People of the Book is meant all those who profess a divine religion and consider themselves the followers of one of the prophets of Allah, the Glorious and the Exalted (may peace be upon our Prophet and his progeny and upon them) and who possess a heavenly scripture from those revealed to the Prophets (a.), such as the Jews, the Christians, the Zoroastrians and similarly the Sabeans who, on the basis of our research, are among the People of the Book. Therefore, the rule of the People of the Book applies to the followers of these religions, and there is no objection to associating with them socially, while observing Islamic laws and morals.
        Q 316: There is a sect that calls itself ‘Aliyyullāhī, and it considers the Commander of the Faithful, Ali ibn Abītālib (a.), as a god and believes in supplicating and seeking fulfillment of requests as an alternative to prayers and fasting. Are they najis?
        A: If they believe that Amīr al-Mu’minīn, Ali ibn Abītālib (a.), is a god (Allah, the exalted, is above what they say), then the rule applicable to them is that of non-Muslims who have not a Book, i.e., they are kāfirs and najis.
        Q 317: There is a sect called ‘Aliyyullāhī which says that Ali (a.) is not a god, although he is not less than a god either. What is the rule applicable to them?
        A: If they do not ascribe a partner to Allah, the One, the Munificent and the Exalted, the rule applicable to them is not that of polytheists.
        Q 318: Is it permissible to donate the votive offerings of a nadhr made by a Twelver Shī‘ah and dedicated to Imam Ḥusayn (a.s.) or to Aṣḥāb al-Kisā’, to such centers where followers of the ‘Aliyyullāhī sect gather, knowing that this act amounts, one way or another, to strengthening these centers?
        A: The belief that the Leader of the Monotheists Ali (a.) is a god is a false belief and takes its adherent out of the pale of Islam. Aiding the propagation of this perverse belief is ḥarām. Further, it is not permissible to spend a nadhr offering for any thing other than its vowed purpose.
        Q 319: There exists a sect in our region, and in some other places, that calls itself Ismā‘īlī. Though they profess faith in the first six Imams (a.) they do not believe in any of the religious obligations or in the authority of the jurist leader. Please explain whether the followers of this sect are najis or pure?
        A: The sole rejection of the Imamate of the last six Imams (a.s.) or any rule from among the rules of Islamic law, so long as that does not amount to rejecting Islamic religion or the Prophethood of the Prophet (SW), does not entail them being non-Muslim and najis unless they abuse or insult any of the infallible Imams (a.s.).
        Q 320: The vast majority of people here are Buddhist non-Muslims. Therefore if a university student rents a house, what is the rule concerning its state of purity and najāsah? Is it necessary to wash and clean the house? It is noteworthy that most of the houses are made of wood and to wash them is not possible. Further, what is the rule concerning hotels and their furniture and articles?
        A: Unless it is confirmed that the hand or body of a non-Muslim that is not among The People of the Book has touched something in the presence of transferable wetness, that thing will not be considered najis. Presuming that its najāsah has been ascertained, it is not obligatory to purify the doors and walls of homes and hotels, nor their furniture and articles. All that is obligatory is to purify those things which are used for eating, drinking, and praying.
        Q 321: There live a large number of people in Khuzestan who call themselves Sabeans and claim that they are the followers of Prophet John [Yaḥyā] (a.s.) and that they possess his scripture. It has also been established for the religious scholars that they are the Sabeans mentioned in the Qur’an. Please explain whether they are among the People of the Book.
        A: The rule of the People of the Book is applicable to this group.
        Q 322: It is generally said that a house built by the hands of non-Muslims becomes najis and performing prayer in it is makrūh. Is this correct?
        A: Performing prayer in such a house is not makrūh.
        Q 323: What is the rule pertaining to working for Jews, Christians, and other non-Muslims, and taking wages from them?
        A: There is no objection to doing so by itself, provided the work is not among the ḥarām works or detrimental to the general interests of Islam and Muslims.
        Q 324: In the region in which we are doing our military service, there exist some tribes belonging to a sect called ‘Ahl-e-Ḥaqq’. Is it valid to use the milk, yogurt and butter they produce?
        A: If they profess faith in the principles of Islam, they are like all other Muslims in matters of purity and najāsah.
        Q 325: The residents of the village where I give lessons do not perform prayers because they belong to the Ahl-e-Ḥaqq sect, and I am forced to eat the food and bread prepared by them, since we live day and night in that village. Is there any problem in my prayers?
        A: if they do not reject the oneness of Allah and the Prophethood of Muhammad (SW) or any of the indispensable elements of the religion and do not believe in any defect in the mission of the Messenger of Islam (SW), being non-Muslim or najis is not attributed to them. Otherwise, it is obligatory to observe the matter of purity and najāsah while coming into contact with them and eating their food.
        Q 326: One of our relatives is a communist, and when we were children he gave us a lot of money and gifts. What is the rule concerning the money and gifts if they are still with us?
        A: If he is proved to be a non-Muslim, his apostasy has been confirmed and he had chosen the path of infidelity after attaining shar‘ī puberty but before confessing faith in Islam, the rule that applies to the wealth of the non-Muslims will apply to his wealth.
        Q 327: Please answer the following questions:
        i. What is the rule for Muslim students intermingling and shaking hands with students belonging to the deviant Bahā’ī sect at the primary, secondary, and high school levels, irrespective of whether they are boys or girls, mukallafs or not, within or outside the school?
        ii. What should be the behavior of the teachers vis-à-vis students who either declare that they are Bahā’īs or are known to be such?
        iii. What is the rule pertaining to using things used by all the students, such as drinking-water taps, latrine taps, pitchers, soap, etc., knowing that the body and hands are wet?
        A: All followers of the deviant Bahā’ī sect are considered najis and their coming into contact with something requires observing the rules of purity for matters in which the state of purity is required. But the behavior of the headmasters and teachers with Bahā’ī students should be in accordance with the regulations and Islamic ethics
        Q 328: Please elucidate the duty of the believing men and women vis-à-vis the deviant Bahā’ī sect and the impacts that arise due to the presence of its followers within the Islamic society?
        A: It is obligatory for all believers to counter the plots and corruption of the deviant Bahā’ī sect and to stop others from being misled by this deviant sect or following it.
        Q 329: At times the followers of the deviant Bahā’ī sect bring us food or something else. Is it permissible for us to use them?
        A: Any sort of social association with the deviant and misleading Bahā’ī sect should be avoided.
        Q 330: A large number of Bahā’īs live in our neighborhood and often visit our home. Some say that the Bahā’īs are najis while others consider them as pure. These Bahā’īs also exhibit good morals. Are they najis or pure?
        A: they are najis and enemies of your religion and faith. So you should beware of them, my dear friends.
        Q 331: What is the rule pertaining to the bus and train seats which are used by Muslims as well as non-Muslims, and in some areas the number of non-Muslims is greater than that of Muslims. Should they be considered pure despite the knowledge that perspiration in hot weather leads to transferable wetness?
        A: Among non-Muslims, the People of the Book are ruled to be pure. In general, in respect with the things used by both non-Muslims and Muslims, they are considered pure unless their najāsah is known.
        Q 332: Studying abroad necessitates contact and association with non-Muslims. In this case, what is the rule concerning taking food prepared by them (after ascertaining that it does not contain prohibited items such as the meat of an animal which is not slaughtered ritually) if there is a possibility that the non-Muslim’s hand have touched the food in the presence of wetness?
        A: The mere possibility that the non-Muslim’s wet hand have touched it is not sufficient for creating an obligation for refraining from it. Rather, unless one is sure that such contact has occurred, it is considered pure. Further, if the non-Muslim is among The People of the Book, he is not intrinsically najis, and if his wet hand touches something, it does not render it najis.
        Q 333: If all the expenses and cost of living of a Muslim living under the shelter of an Islamic government are met as a result of his working for a non-Muslim and he has close relations with him, is it permissible to establish strong family ties with such a Muslim and eat his food on occasions?
        A: There is no objection that other Muslims establish relations with such a Muslim. But, if the latter fears that he might be led astray from the doctrines of his faith by the non-Muslim he is serving, it is obligatory for him to leave this job; and it is obligatory for others, in such circumstances, to forbid him from evil.
        Q 334: My brother-in-law had, regrettably, turned a total apostate due to various reasons, so much so that it led him to commit sacrilege against certain religious sanctities. Now, years after leaving Islam, he has sent a letter informing that he has come to believe in Islam, though he never prays or fasts. What kind of contact can his parents and other members of family have with him? Is he categorized as a non-Muslim? Is it obligatory to consider him najis?
        A: Presuming that his earlier apostasy is established, if he has repented later, he is considered pure, and there is no problem in his parents and other relatives having contact with him.
        Q 335: Does the rule applicable to a non-Muslim apply to a person who rejects some indispensable elements of the religion, such as fasting, etc.?
        A: If rejection of some indispensable elements of religion amounts to rejection of the Prophet’s (s.) prophethood, denial of the Prophet’s mission, or belief that the sharī‘ah is defective, then it leads to apostasy and being a non-Muslim.
        Q 336: Do the punishments prescribed for an apostate and the warring non-Muslim [at war with Muslims] fall into the category of political issues and are, thus, among the duties of the leader or are they established laws which will remain unchanged till the Day of Judgment?
        A: They are divine shar‘ī laws.
    • Prayer
    • Fasting
    • Khums
    • Jihad
    • Enjoining the Good and Forbidding Evil
    • Ḥarām Gains
    • Chess and Gambling Instruments
    • Music and Ghinā’
    • Dancing
    • Clapping
    • Non-maḥrams’ Pictures and Films
    • Satellite Television Equipment
    • Theatre and Cinema
    • Painting and Sculpture
    • Magic, Conjuring, and Evocation of Spirits and Jinn
    • Hypnosis
    • Lottery
    • Bribery
    • Medical Issues
    • Teaching, Learning and Their Proprieties
    • Copyrights
    • Dealing with non-Muslims
    • Working for Oppressive States
    • Clothing
    • Treating the West
    • Smoking and Narcotics
    • Shaving the Beard
    • Attending Gatherings of Debauchery
    • Writing Supplications and Istikhārah
    • Religious Events
    • Hoarding and Extravagance
    • Buying and Selling
    • Miscellaneous Issues in Business
    • Rules Concerning Ribā
    • Right of Pre-emption
    • Hiring, Renting, and Lease
    • Surety
    • Pawning and Mortgaging
    • Partnership
    • Presents and Gifts
    • Debt and Loan
    • Ṣulḥ
    • Power of Attorney
    • Mustaḥabb Alms
    • Deposits and Loaned Properties
    • Leaving a Will
    • Usurpation
    • Placement under Guardianship and Signs of Maturity
    • Silent Partnership
    • Banking
    • State Property
    • Endowments
    • Rules Concerning Graveyards
    • Glossary
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